Week 6 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austin Frownfelter on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0087 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Regina Schulte-Ladbeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Basics of Space Flight in Astronomy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Astrodynamics How do airplanes V Forces Thrust Force in direction of motion Drag Force in opposite direction of motion WeightGravity Force directed toward Earth Lift Force pulling aircraft upward In level ight Thrust must be greater than Drag Lift must be equal to Weight In AscentTakeoff Thrust must be greater than Drag Lift must be greater than Weight In DescentLanding Thrust must be greater than equal to Drag Lift must be less than Weight What is a Force Push or Pull as a result of an interaction between objects F is the term for Force Vector it s applied in a direction In units of Newtons or N IN 1 kgx 1 ms2 IN 0225 lbs Newton s laws 1st law Inertia An object at rest will stay at rest until a force acts upon it An object in motion will stay in motion until a force acts upon it Example Ball rolling on oor will experience friction and slow down 2nd law Fma Force is equal to mass times the acceleration a acceleration also a vector If force is constant A Larger mass will have a smaller acceleration A smaller mass will have a larger acceleration 3rd law Equal and Opposite Reactions If an object exerts a force on an object that second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object Rocketeers call acceleration Delta V or Av v1 initial velocity vf nal velocity ii If time 2 2f position zfZ Av vf z tf t In a rocket as propellant is expelled the mass of the rocket changes over time Am mf ml Negative value as the nal mass is less than the initial mass Am Ti At burn time Am F TtAV m X v p gt Momentum Thrust depends on mass ow rate through the engine and the eXhaust velocity TTA T AvT Example Throvving vs Shooting a piece of chalk ZAP F X F At Ap I Changing the momentum of an object requires an impulse Increasing the AI will decrease the I decreasing the hurt of an m mg Can be understood from the 3rd laW Object needs to be moving size shape inclination air density v2 Newton s Law of Gravity Law The force of gravity is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them Equation F G Gravitational constant Gravitational force 0 acts at a distance 0 Has an in nite range 0 inversesquare law 0 is always attractive Weight and Mass r E a m 0 Different Weight is a force 0 Wmgtltg Your weight on Earth M e X mperson FZGT How much do w accelerate by Earth ct g the gravitational acceleration by Earth or 982 W6 mpmon gtlt g gt Weight on Earth W mperson gtlt gplanet gt Weight on any Planet on planet Gravity and Altitude 0 Force gets weaker with altitude h o d r h Me 0 g Gr h2 gt We1ght gets smaller Altitude km g 3 0 Earth surface 981 9 Mount Everest 980 500 Low Earth Orbit 844 5000 308 9000 169 similar to moon oo 0 truly weightless Free Fall Object moves due to gravity alone 0 Near surface of Earth an object in free fall accelerates by gravity independent of mass 0 Two objects dropped from the same height hit ground at the same time neglecting air resistance Avhammer Avfeal he go Avhammer Al feaz her Gravity 10 At s Avsm2 0 0 l 10 2 20 3 30 Apparent and True weightlessness 0 Absence of weightGravity 0 In nite distance is impossible 0 Absence of net forces due to gravity 0 Position between 2 separate masses
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