Popular in Colonial North America
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Saturday December 6, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to HSTAA 301 at a university taught by Prof. Johnson in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 153 views.
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Date Created: 12/06/14
Confederation 12114 0 The forces against a strong federal union both ideological and practical as western lands 0 Thus nature of Articles of Confederation drafted 1776 ratified 1781 Weak union of sovereign states no power to tax one stateone vote 0 Gave congress about the same amount of power that the colonists had been willing to concede to the British Parliament Could not engage in war or taxation without the support of at least 9 of the 13 states 0 All powers not expressly given to congress were reserved for the states The Articles began with We the States rather than We the People 0 Financial problems in ation depression esp hitting commercial sector Reform plans debt as a weapon for union bond issues banks of financier Robert Morris frustrated 0 States refused to levy taxes to support the war which forced the Congress to print around 2 million in Continental cash which caused colossal depreciation of the Continental currency making it almost worthless by 1781 0 Prices rose exponentially all across the board beef went from 4 centslb to 169lb 0 General support in congress for a 5 tax on exports during the Confederation but RI did not want it and so the tax fell through 0 Robert Morris was British born and became a merchant in Philly before joining the patriot cause Financed the Yorktown campaign Morris was given charge of the financial committee and tried to bring back the value of paper currency by establishing the Bank of North America Morris saw debt as a source of strength because as a state owed money to their citizens they were bound to those citizens support Federal debt could be a potential source of union Morris advocated for federal gov to be able to control national revenue and currency He essentially bailed out the federal gov but they were suspicious of him The lack of support from congress inspired Morris and other nationalists to encourage disruption and mutiny in the Army led to the Newburg Affair in which the officers of the Continental Army contemplated making George Washington a king Morris retired from his role in 1784 0 In the 1780s the US was suffering from a severe trade deficiency having lost the main source through which America had entered into the world trade the British Empire Worked out a deal with the British where US traded with them but mostly imported British goods rather than exporting American ones Severe commercial depression from 178487 Commercial depression then was not as bad as it would be now most of the people in the county lived on farms which weren t connected to the trade network anyway However it has been estimated that per capita income in US fell by 46 from 17841791 0 Problems of westem expansion dangers of secession states of Vermont Franklin Congress ordinances of 1785 land and 17841787 govt NW admitted as states under federal supervision 0 All lands west of the Mississippi were handed over by the British although it was not clear which land belonged to whom due to confusing charters claimed by colonies decades before Constitutional convention May Sept 1787 12214 A gathering to reform Articles of Confederation Took a long time to draft a document capable of uniting the states essentially created a league of sovereign states Articles didn t confirm the central gov s power to raise money through taxes and needed to be reformed The young nationalists made up the majority of this reform movement Got their chance to make a new document when problems arose regarding trade and commerce Led to a 1786 convention in Annapolis where they called for a new convention to be had in Philadelphia to draft a new constitution Calling this convention was an audacious move nearly treason but James Madison was convincing enough to draw in delegates from each state Wanted to write a new constitution but retain the sovereignty of the states Daniel Shays Rebellion convinced the country that there needed to be a change to the Articles of Confederation Rebellion waged by disgruntled farmers who were forced to pay unfair taxes even a stamp tax and eventually a group advanced on the federal arsenal at Springfield Mass and ran into a hastily created army funded by private money who were able to suppress the rebels Public concern created a snowball effect intent on making sure that the Philly convention would not be a failure like the Annapolis one had been George Washington was convinced to attend 55 delegates mostly from coastal elite From 12 states 74 had been invited but some hard core founders like John Adams or John Hancock did not attend Ben Franklin was the oldest 39 of these men had served in the Revolution 21 in the army and 8 had signed the Declaration of Independence About 13 owned slaves The average age of the delegates was 42 and most had been college educated There were enough delegates to convince the public of wide spread support Virginians arrive first to join up with the Pennsylvanians Early business was dictated by the plan that the Virginians and some Pennsylvanians Phase 0I Le39 debate over Q of government and controlled by whom Randolph s nationalist Virginia Plan for 3branch government replacing Articles and overriding states authority Countered by small state 1 state1 vote New J ersev Plan July16 compromise both states and population to be represented in bicameral legislature VA Plan throughout the idea that the convention was going to amend the Articles It was a convention to create a new federal gov The debate over ratification 178789 A Constitution created blending tradition and innovation replacing not amending 0 But could it be ratified A party platform written but key states needed for ratification Wanted to compromise state authority with a due supremacy of the federal authority Did not want to over extend on aspects of state gov that worked well Divided the sovereignty deriving sovereignty it from the people in both the states and federal gov the term we the people was a way to set up this division It sounded good because it was more easily controlled Delegates put the difference between federal and state power in the judiciary Through judicial review they could determine whether or not a law was constitutional Constitution based on inclusion rather inclusion better to have everyone in a tent spitting out than one person in a tent with everyone spitting in Many delegates walked out early such as New York when they did not agree with aspects of the constitution The writers of the constitution said the document would be ratified by 913 states even though the Articles of Confederation required unanimous decision They knew many people were against it 0 Early successes in mostly small states Del PA NJ GA CT in late 87 Mass in Feb 88 but amid rising Federalist ie nationalist v Antifederalist ie true federalist debate Small states saw protection from larger states in the constitution Many had large public debts and were hoping some of that would be absorbed by the federal gov Penn Was the first of the big states to ratify They called their convention in winter which kept many of the backwoods dissidents out of the discussion Federalists were supporters of the constitution but against the Articles The Antifederalists were supportive of the Articles 0 Antifederalist beliefs basically negative feared large republic tyranny from consolidation lack of definition of powers wanted bill of rights Men of little faith Similar to the loyalists Knew what they didn t like but were unsure of what they wanted to be Admitted that change was needed but obstructed the means for that change Focused on the belief that republican gov was only possible on a small territory Feared a large republic would become an empire as Rome had been Feared corruption and sectional rivalries in the gov and saw the constitution as a safeguard to slavery in the north and a danger to slavery in the south Feared that consolidation in this sense could not strike a balance and would result in a monarchy Antifederalists had no trust in human nature localists in a sense Thought men had an insatiable lust for power Were also angry that there was not a Bill of Rights in the document French and Indian War was not unifying as many other wars had been for the British the aftermath convinced the colonials that changes needed to be made 176075 war reform resistance 177590 independence implementing republicanism balancing liberty amp order After independence Americans spent 15 years figuring out how to implement their ideas and run a functioning gov and economy These were the years where Americans experimented with gov from state to federal levels The people were now citizens rather than subjects Leaders in America feared what a mob of the public could do and so they created a system of checks and balances to keep liberty and order viable 0 What had not changed agrarianism low life expectancy social stratification white male patriarchy In 1790 America remained overwhelmingly agrarian Mainly subsistence agriculture although there was some large scale production With a population of 4 million there were only 12 towns with more than 5000 people Low life expectancy median age of Americans in 1790 was 16 Still defined social classes controlled by a white male hierarchy in the south as well as the north Indian populations east of the Appalachians was destroyed 0 But major transitions in redwhiteblack population mix ethnic pluralism labor systems regionalism Diversification in the population brought new ideas Less white Anglo Saxon society Increasingly became whites vs non whites Indentured white servitude died away but black slavery increased in numbers and ferocity in the south The north began moving away from slavery Movineg from a world that had been shaped by kinship and barter to one dedicated to selfrealized egalitarianism Traditional definitions of human existence were shifting Referring to peers as fellow citizens or Mr and Mrs Rather than lofty titles People realized that they could make their place in society through self determination and hard work Equality and opportunity had drawbacks Women were more formally excluded from commercial activities and blacks or Indians were completely excluded from commercial endeavors White men owned themselves but also owned blacks legally and women by de facto Women and blacks were explicitly un able to vote 0 And in attitudespractices from hierarchy and discretionary authority to popular sovereignty and delegated power from state to individual as basic unit of society from set to negotiated positions in society from class to race divisions A new form of composite stateempire 0 Changing definitions of liberty role of religion function of the state
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