Cold War, Containment and the Second Red Scare
Cold War, Containment and the Second Red Scare HIST 2112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rohrer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
nd Return of the Body Snatchers? Cold War, Containment and the 2 Red Scare I. A Bi-Polar World in 1945 • WWII is over in May through August of 1945 • Germany, Italy and Japan and rest of axis powers are defeated • Allies claim victory • Leaves world in shambles in need of decisions o What happens to axis powers? o How will he rebuild? o Wo are the powers and leaders of Europe? • US and Soviet Union are the two world powers • Soviet Union becomes out #1 enemy at defeat of Germany o How? They were allies o Friendship crumbled quickly o By the end of 1945 and 1946, Soviet Union becomes competitor politically, socially and economically o Soviet Union is in bad place after WWII § Suffer over 20 million deaths in war § Industry capacities were destroyed – factories § Rationing and shortages that millions starved from on top of war deaths § Wanted to start over and become the dominant force in Europe § Communism = Attractive Political/ Economic System in War- torn, Poor Countries • Pretty successful • Unofficially take over several nations o Militarily, politically, economically allied • Rebuilding and expanding • Strict centralized control • Aid many post-war reconstructions to gain satellite states – control • Bound in military and economic alliance o Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia o Known as the Eastern Bloc o Communist governments o Growing influences and power scares US • The Cold War o The state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western Powers from 1945-1990 o 45 year ultra fierce relationship with Soviet Union o State of political hostility between the Eastern Bloc countries and the US Western Powers o The defining foreign policy even in American history until 1990 o Never engaged in direct conflict – “Cold” war § Politics, economics, propaganda, but not a war of physical battles o Want direct and indirect control of the world for 45 years § Bipolar place • Communism vs democratic influences § “good guy” vs “bad Guy” in US § wars in conflict • not between US and Soviet Union, but overall ideas • ex. Vietnam and Korean War o Goal is to ensure that as few countries fall to communism as possible § Intensely committed to keep Soviet Union contained § Keep outside of US border especially § Domestic and International II. Rise of Containment • Containment Police = The Truman Doctrine Police • Hold communism and disallow it from spreading • George Kenan names “The Theory of Containment” o Didn’t want to send US troops to Soviet Union o All of Europe is a hot bed for communism • President Truman o Determined to reverse trend o Containment advocate • Greece and Turkey are threatened in 1947 by Communist takeover o On the verge of being taken over in March of 1937, US steps in o Truman goes to congress and asks for $400 million to send to Greece and Turkey for military and economic assistance o Worked within two years – threat passed • US federal government though financial aid could help to deny take over o Common with economically poor countries § Many after WWII § Thought class conflict could only be remedied through redistribution of wealth – communism § Very attractive to poor nations § 100’s of millions fell to this idea • NOT forced, many WANTED and EMBRACED the ideology of communism III. Non-violent Containment • The European Recovery Program = The Marshall Plan o Huge financial support o First priority is to help poor nations o Poured money into Western Europe after WWII o June 1947: Secretary of State Marshall announced the program § Meant to financially assist Western Europe • Aid was completely “humane” • Words for marketing • Just to keep Western Europe in Pro-American camp • NOT humane § Aid > $17 billion § Over 4 years to Western Europe • Italy, Germany, Belgium. Etc. § Created economic miracle in Western Europe § Producing twice as much as before the war – manufacturing restored • Ex. liquor • Record levels of trade • Post war economic boom in US • Spend money to make money IV. (Potentially) violent and Violent Containment • Berlin was the capital of Nazi Germany, and when the war ended, the Allied powers split Germany into East and West Germany territories to occupy • 2 Zones controlled by various allied nations o East Germany: Soviet Union o West Germany: (3 parts) Britain, France, US • Berlin Airlift Crisis (1948) o Soviet Union blockades West and water supply – cut themselves off from Democratic Berlin § War? o Respond by airlifting food and fuel to Berlin from other allied countries for 10 months o Landed every 45 seconds o May 1949: East Germany finally lifts blockade o Marks first real standoff between East and West Germany in Cold War – democratic victory o Never escalated to be violent § By 1947, the US and the Soviet Union both had access to Nuclear Warfare • The Loss of China (1949-1950) o Falls to Communism in 1949 o Still technically communist today o Late 1940’s, it was the nation we most wanted to keep from communism o Civil war since 1920’s § Battle within China between communists (Mao Zedong) and nationalists (democrats) (Chiang-Kai Shek) § At the end of WWII – they met to talk about a new government • Equality for all political parties truce § By 1946 less than a year later, they were fighting again o October 2945: Communist Leader declares the peoples republic of China – ends civil war § Communist country § Should we have made more aggressive intervention? § First significant loss for US in Cold War • Did not take this lightly o Close to WWIII if China ally Soviet Union did not have nuclear capabilities – major threat scared each side • Korean War (1950-1953) o End of WWII § North Korea is communist and South Korea is democratic § Split by 38 parallel o North Korea wants to take over South Korea § Civil was is the beginning of the Korean War o July 1950: 75,000 North Korean soldiers in People’s Army enter South Korea o US supports South § Push North Korea out a few months later and war escalates § Douglas MacArthur (US general) decides to contain communism to North Korea in addition to pushing them further to China § Angers Truman § MacArthur fired § 1952-1953 Korean War dies down § nothing changes – still split by the 38 parallel today o Korean war is on of many military stand offs o After Korean War, US comes to the realization that this will be long, costly, and difficult to contain V. 2 Red Scare and the Federal Government’s Attempts to Combat International Communism • 2nd Red Scare tests the first amendment just like the first o freedom and national security o fear of internal communism • 3 ways Federal Government combats domestic communism o 1. Executive Order 9835 § Truman signs order establishing federal employee loyalty program § Embracive measures to remove communism sympathizers from government § Loyal? § Fired because rightly/wrongly assumed communist and maybe a spy o 2. FBI Investigations § trapped/followed suspicious Americans that might be sympathizers/spies/supporters § quick to end all communist protests including civil rights • Ex. MLKJ – tied him to communism o 3. House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) § Committee set up during the late 1940’s and early 1950’s in the US House of Representatives to investigate citizens that were though to be communists § Focused on exposing federal government communists and those not associated with federal government § Control Hollywood industry • Blacklist communist directors • Sanitize film and TV shows • Anti-communist agenda • Without morally complex/ambiguous storylines – no conflict, no major problems • 1950’s sappy entertainment o Leave it to Beaver o I Love Lucy o White picket fences, happy middle class, Christian views, traditional gender roles, no politics/unions/civil rights subjected entertainment nd • Was the 2 Red Scare overboard? o Fears of communism were sometimes fair – there were spies o Americans scared o First red scare there were no nuclear powers – associated communists with threat of nuclear war, WWIII and annihilation of world – feelings have not entirely gone away
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