Arch Hist Week 5
Arch Hist Week 5 ARCH 3411
U of M
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Norden on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Week 5 Tuesday 10615 Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture 0 Christianity emerged in early Roman Empire 0 Christianity was not a widely accepted religion and thus meetings were held in secret and it wasn t until Constantine proclaimed toleration of all religions that Christians were able to build places of worship 0 Services were held in private homes until that point 0 As followers increased community houses were built with a hall for worship or baptistery 0 Idea that a city was a big house and a house was a city 0 Family is everyone living under your roof not a matter of blood relations includes slaves pets etc 0 Dining room that overlooks garden is very important dining is an important ritual 0 Roman architecture is the art of shaping space around ritual Leptis Magna Libya ca 212 CE Severan Forum Forum of Trajan with Basilica Ulpia was a model for Leptis Magna in Libya Two columned structures in basilica stands on pedestals that rises columns to higher level of dignity in the basilica at Forum of Trajan it was screened by colonnade Basilica is a general public building like the Greek stoa could have meetings law courts etc Piazza Armerina Sicily Villa IV Century CE Much smaller than Hadrian s villa Same kind of axial relationships between rooms built like a city Water garden that one walks around and looks into but does not enter Villa provides freedom from obligations that one has in the city can relax sing converse etc Temple of Minerva Medica Rome IV Century CE Not a temple but a rotunda garden Thought to be precursor for gothic architecture but realized that construction was not made of gothic attributions Palace of Diocletian Croatia ca 300 CE Does not have an apse but a triumphal arch Forum repeats Roman city idea Triangular arch con guration at entrance can be place for Emperor s appearance Basilica Nova Basilica Maxentius Rome 307312 Two apses where large groups could meet or wait to appear before judge they also ended the longitudinal and transverse axes Three groin vaults over central space with three barrelvaulted bays on each side Lateral stability of the groin vaults was enabled by semicircular barrel vaults and support walls Clerestory windows allowed illumination Giovanni e Paolo Christian Community House 111 CE Until 312 Christianity didn t have any official standing Tended to be the poor who were followers Did not meet in private houses but gathered in houses with utilitarian purpose Christian Community House Dura Europos Syria 200230 CE Christians lived in houses that were utilitarian Sacrifice to Gods took place outside temple in a traditional Roman temple almost never entered interior this did not serve needs for a congregation Central ritual in Christianity is dining St John Lateran Rome begun 313 First generation of Christian buildings were based on Roman basilicas St John Lateran is one of the earliest basilicas and is the cathedral of Rome cathedrals contain seat or cathedra of a bishop Built adjacent to Lateran Palace given to Christians by Constantine to serve as residence for bishop In original building it had paired aisle on either side of nave Nave had an apse containing the cathedra and seat for priests at the end High clerestory windows lit the main space smaller windows in outer aisles Concrete walls covered with brick and marble columns salvaged from earlier Roman buildings Church of Nativity Bethlehem before 333 Sacred site is enshrined in a rotunda with a cosmic symbolism that the site is the center of the world Basilica had an octagon at the head of the nave instead of an apse Basilica is built to accommodate pilgrims that visitaccommodates axial entrance movement in line Combines double aisle basilica with atrium forecourt and octagonal rotunda over the place Jesus is thought to have been born Passage around octagon allowed pilgrims to circulate and view grotto J esus s birthplace through opening in oor The integration of an octagon in a basilica shows Early Christian willingness to experiment with forms in order to reach best design for a religious building Anastasis Rotunda Jerusalem Enshrines empty tomb of Christ Often called martyrium Old St Peter s Rome begun 333 Martyria was another type of building constructed for Christian faith meant to hold memorials to commemorate a site or saint built around their tomb or shrine Began as a martyrium for the apostle Peter Early Christian cemetery Did not practice cremation inhumation so needed land to bury people This is where catacombs come in nave and aisles covered a cemetery underneath and place to have funeral meals Traditional location of tomb is under altar Warehouse construction makes up the structure which is easy to put together not architecturally ambitious Fundamental elements of the basilica church includes longitudinal axis form entrance to apse and triumphal arch at entrance and at nave to the altar symbolizing entry into a sacred place Central aisle is the nave which procession would move down with large atrium preceding it High windows illuminate nave In uenced the design of churches later on S Sabina Rome 422432 Similar to temporary basilica Light comes from above from small windows that line nave Thursday 10 8 15 Orthodox Baptistery Ravenna 400450 Domed octagonal structure surrounding octagonal marble font Extension of comers makes form resemble a square Two campaigns building of 400 and building of 450 Weight of building comes down on columns dome is an incredibly thin and lightweight construction consisting of terra cotta tubes instead of solid bricks like other structures Tubes are hollow so most of wall is empty space It is a rotunda but it has a physical symbolic center which is an entrance into a pool of birth and rebirth Image on ceiling represents the heavens Oculus depicts baptism of Jesus in river Jordan old man on right side is a personification of the River Jordan Vertical axis is created in oculus representing connection between heaven and earth The 12 apostles encircle this central image Empty thrones depicted around top of walls symbolize presence of God Exterior is plain brick with 8 arched windows and corbeled arches with pilaster strips S Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna 490 More formulaic example of early Christian church Palace church for Ostrogoth King Theoderic Exterior constructed of brick common in Early Christian churches Single aisle ank nave Mosaic procession of saints moving toward semicircular apse Procession of male Saints move toward figure of Christ and procession of female Saints move toward Virgin Mary Between clerestory windows are mosaics portraying Old Testament prophets and New Testament evangelists and apostles At the very top of nave wall there are depictions of the Passion story on south side and miracles of Christ on north side Decorate interior conveyed Christianity teachings to mostly illiterate public and symbolized how rich kingdom of God is Grained marble columns create procession of nave Constantinople during Byzantine era Istanbul is on top of ancient Constantinople making it hard to know much about it Standard Roman armature was in full play in Constantinople Colonnaded streets don t survive We know the Imperial Palace only fragmentarily Hagia Sophia Constantinople modern Istanbul 532537 by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus The Church of Holy Wisdom One of the greatest buildings in the world it epitomizes Byzantine architecture Great church attached to imperial palace 4 towers are necessary to a mosque to call faithful to prayer added later on and not part of original building Greek Church is not just a church but fabric of city even though that fabric has changed over time Both a basilica and rotunda Contains a square with dome that is same size as square on top Longitudinal character to it where there is a procession that leads you to apse Ambiguity of church sets up contradictions verticality of high piers and domes above them along with horizontal separations that cut building into different layers each having different amount of light being let through Material used is marble that is finished so as to be re ective Gold brass mosaics are made of marble not cut of stone as they are in Roman architecture gives a re ective appearance of glass Pendentive provides solution to putting circular dome on top of square something the Romans had to tried to do First large scale successive application of pendentives First dome collapsed part of dome fell again and after repairs the other half fell Dome is supported by 4 arches During church ritual major space was reserved for ecclesiastics and retinue entourage of the Emperor this meeting under the dome symbolized the joining of church and state Page 140143 S Vitale Ravenna 546548 Shows them of having a central plan Octagonal dome as well as octagonal galleries and aisles Displays similar ambiguity that Hagia Sophia does Contains columns that are in a way Corinthian capitals Between piers of octagon there are semicircular niches that allow light to come in through windows on outer wall Mosaic of Justinian and Theodora emperor and empress had themselves depicted at head of procession this shows Theodora was just as important as Justinian both are depicted with halos S Marco Venice 10421085 In uenced by J ustinian s Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople Each arm of the Greekcross plan is covered by hemispherical internal domes All the domes are on pendentives with barrel vaults connecting the piers that hold domes up Most of the architecture re ects Byzantium but there are other architectural styles present exterior of the domes are raised on timber framework which resembles Eastern domes Some domes have windows at their base which illuminates upper areas of church Became a model for Romanesque churches in southern France
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