Psychology Chapter 6 Notes
Psychology Chapter 6 Notes PSYC 101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Feben Notetaker on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Bendersky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Section 61 Learning from the First Days of Life Habituation Monday October 5 2015 108 AM PAYING A39I39I39ENTION AND LEARINING TO IGNORE ORIENTING REFLEXESAND HABITUATION Orienting reflexes we stop what we39re doing and orient ourselves to the unexpected stimuli all our senses We do thisto protect ourselves o sympathetic system activatesflight or fight response Habituation decrease respond to stimulus as it is repeated over and over Many organism can go through habituation Simplest form of learning Cerebellum aids in primitive habituation Allows brain flexibility by not responding to EVERY stimuli Brain can overstimulate in the form of migraines M igranes headaches on one side of the brain that can originate from feelings of nausea vomiting 0 Some experience auras when sensitive to certain stimuli O Migraine attacks caused by overload of stimuli o Migraine suffers can39t habituate as well as nonmigraine suffers to stressful sounds Habituation is NOT permanent Brain hasflexibility to dishabituate when circumstances present themselves Dishabituation organism respondsto stimuli that it has habituated to more intensely Causes to dishabituate 0 Quality of stimuli increases 0 Passage of time PRACTICAL APPIJCATIONS OF HABITUATION Habituation is used to train people to habituate to chronic motion sickness 0 Physical therapist continuously by exposing the stimulus training the patient to adjust Also used to train figure skaters and astronauts to habituate to motion sickness Chapter 6 Page 1 Section 62 Classical Conditioning Learning through the Association of Stimuli Tuesday October 6 2015 602 PM ELEM ENTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1 The unconditioned stimulus and response 0 Unconditioned stimulus US stimulus that naturally causesa reflexive response 0 Unconditioned response UR response to US 0 Unconditioned is saying that behavior was not learned 0 EX Pavlov39s dog naturally salivates UR when it seesfood US 2 Neutral Stimulus 0 Neutral stimulus NS doesn39t naturally get UR o EX A Buzzer neutral stimulus doesn39t naturally cause dog to salivate UR 3 Pairing the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus o Repeatedly associate USwith NS Pavlov kept sounding buzzer with presenting food multiple times NSloses neutrality Dog gets salivates at buzzer classic conditioning occurs Conditioned stimulus CS stimulus that causes conditioned response in organism I EX the buzzer NS lost neutrality and turned into CS 0 Conditioned Response CR Response caused by conditioned stimulus I EX the dog salivates at buzzer UR now is CR Classical Conditioning NSUS CS CScauses UR UR becomes CR FACTORS AFFECTING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Contiguity degree of which NSand USare close in time 0 NS and US are close together for effectiveness 0 Varies but generally longer interval less effective 0 Order of conditioning if Pavlov gave the dog food then sounded buzzer it wouldn39t be effective 0 Forward conditioning NS before US learning Contingency the NS needs to predict the US 0 NS and US need to be associated o EX Pavlov needs to keep sounding the buzzer then give the food Both are needed to make subject39s learning effective REALWORLD APPIJCATION OF CLASSICAL CON DITIONING Examples of Classical Conditioning Everyday 0 Fear of a snake 0 Happy memory of smelling perfume All classical conditions originate from USUR relationships Higher order classical conditioning Sometimes classical conditioning comes from 0000 Chapter 6 Page 2 preexisting classical conditioning 0 Ex snake bites you US fear of snakes UR see a snake US in the woods NSCS you39re scared of the woods CR Classical conditioning hastwo responses Emotional EX experiment to make Little Albert fear awhite rat US loud noise CS white rat UR scares Albe CR Albert39s scared of the white rat NS white rat M ost fears are classically conditioned Stimulus generalization stimuli similar to CShave same power to cause CR even though they aren39t associated with US Stimulus discrimination fear established to a specific stimulus o EX Albert didn39t only fear white rats but anything fuzzy Physiological most important and common form of classical conditioning is nausea Taste aversion occurs when an organism pairs the experience of nausea with a certain food and becomes conditioned to feel ill at the sight smell or idea of the food EX girl eats peppermint ice cream and get tonsillitis and gets nauseated and starts vomiting It took her a while to think of peppermint ice cream without feeling of nausea Longest record of taste aversion is 20 years Only occurs after one association with N8 and US Interval between NS and UScan be very long Biological preparedness a genetic tendency to learn taste aversion easily Important in survival EXTINCTION OF CLASSICALLY CONDITION ED RESPONSES Extinction removal of conditioned response CSdoesn39t cause CR CSwo US extinction O CSdoesn39t predict US no longer has effect on subject Acquisition learning curve for CR and extinction curve for CR Spontaneous recovery CR comes back for a brief time before going extinct again CR can come back quicker than created In video games people are punished or rewarded for certain behaviors and decisions they make in a game Chapter 6 Page 3 Chapter 6 Page 4 Section 63Operant Conditioning Learning from the Consequences of Our Actions Tuesday October 6 2015 602 PM EL THORNDIKE39S LAW OF EFFECT Thorndike an American was testing cats39 operant conditioning by putting them in a puzzle box PUZZLE BOX httpcolleqecenqagecomnextbooksharedpsychologypastorino 9781305088740images88740 f ch0605t2pnq token 74CCD6DOBS7E3758302B30EB63DDC54280E40FACE178C1 1C48DE75A8E4415CE0871794CFOE21 FCDCD43A4FEE6ACSCS 14412D6E9358F50398 Thorndike 1898 placed a hungry cat in the box with food outside to see how long it would take for the cat to get out of the box When he kept repeating the procedure the cat took less time o The first few times the struggle would unlock the door 0 Astime went on the cat understood the mechanism of the box Took lesstime Cat learned to associate behavior with the consequences that its behavior brought the cat out 0 Law of effect in a given situation behaviors that lead to positive satisfying consequences will be strengthened If the same situation occurs behavior will be repeated If given a negative consequence behavior will be weakened lf same situation occurs it will be less likely to be repeated RANDOM ACTIONS AND REINFORCEM ENT 0 Cat EX cats random actions in box eventually led to the box opening 0 The random actions were rewarded and there for reinforced Reinforcement rewarded behavior is most likely in the future TYPES OF REINFORCEM ENT Positive Positive reinforcement strengthening a behavior by adding something pleasant to the environment of the organism EX cat stepping on pedal and getting food Negative Negative reinforcement strengthening a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment of the organism EX cat was enforced to step on the pedal because it was stuck in the box 0 Box was removed from environment therefore enforcing the cat to step on the plants Chapter 6 Page 5 Punishment unpleasant consequence that leadsto decrease in behavior TYPESOF PUNISHM ENT Positive Positive punishment discouraging behavior by addition of something unpleasant in the environment EX electrify floor every time cat steps on pedal Negative Negative punishment discouraging behavior by removing something pleasant from environment EX putting a drape over the cage when cat steps on pedal removing light BF SKINNER AND THE EXPERIM ENTALSTUDY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING American Psychologist BF Skinner 1920919805 introduced the term operant conditioning to the Laws of Effect Operant conditioning response isforced from the animal 0 Animal chosesto respond to environment in a certain way Skinner box a chamber large enough to house a small animal 0 Rats pull on a lever to receive food 0 Pigeon peck on a disk to receive food Skinner would put a hungry rat in the box to let it figure out how long it would take the rat to figure it out The rat was allowed to press the lever as many times as it wanted Skinner would record how often the rat pushed the lever o This helped skinner see the rat39s acquisition of operant conditioning UlSITION AND EXTINCTION Extinction when behavior is no longer enforced NOT THESAM EAS o EX Boss stops paying you CLASSICAL Acquisition doesn39t happen after one trial CONDITIONING o EX come to work for a few days Extinction burst temporary increase after extinction occurs 0 EX working hard to get paid by boss Extinction happens after a number of trials Removal of reinforcement causes extinction o EX a little kid crying about atoy don t give the toy SCHEDULESOF REINFORCEM ENT There are factors that increase the rate of reinforcement 0 Schedule of reinforcement time and consistency of reinforcement Continuous reinforcement 0 Continuous reinforcement each and every instance of desired behavior is rewarded EX reaching for a plate on a high shelf 0 Reaching is rewarded by getting plate Makes modifying behavior hard Very vulnerable to extinction 0 There hasto be little time bw behavior and reward EX rewarding a kid for being polite 0 You can39t always be there to reward the kid soon enough leads to kid not being polite o Nd associates being polite with reward Partial reinforcement Partial reinforcement behavior is only rewarded sometimes Chapter 6 Page 6 Ratio schedules of partial reinforcement are based on the number of responses 0 Fixed ratio schedules a set number of responses must be emitted before a reward is given I EX rat would have to push lever 3 times to get a reward I Slower extinction I Has high response rates 0 Variable ratio schedules in which the exact number of responsesthat are required to receive a reward varies around some average EX rat pushes lever 2 timesthe first time then 6 timesthe second Has higher ratesthan fixed ratio Slower rates of extinction than fixed ratio Real life EX Slot machines 0 interval schedules are based on the timing of the responses 0 Fixed interval schedule the organism is rewarded for the first instance of the desired response after which a set interval of time must pass before any other instances of the response will be rewarded I Organism works harder right before the time passes I EX rat presses less often when seeing pattern of time 0 Variable interval schedule the length of the interval varies I Helps pause behavior after reinforcement I Produces steady response 0 Ratio schedules have higher rates than interval schedules 0 Variable schedules have higher response rates than fixed DISCRIMINATION AND GENERAIJZATION o Discrimination occurs when organism distinguish bw similar stimuli and respond to a specific situation that will be reinforced o EX you know you39ll get paid for working but you won39t do someone else39s work bc you won39t get paid 0 Same behavior is emitted to different but similar stimuli o Relates to discrimination and generalization of groups of people SHAPE NEW BEHAVIORS 0 Before being enforced or punished the subject needs to engage in the behavior 0 To teach a new behavior operant trainers use shaping I Shaping a novel behavior is slowly conditioned by reinforcing successive approximations of the final desired behavior 0 Rewarding behavior that is in the direction of that certain behavior 0 EX training a dog progressively I Rewarding dog for paying attention I Rewarding for sitting up I Rewarding for standing etc o EX shaping a child to be successful in school DECISION M AKING IN OPERANT CONDITIONING 0 Training a certain behavior involves two consequences 0 Punishment 0 Reinforcement 0 When do you make the decision 0 Punishment is riskier than enforcing behaviorwhy o Punishment doesn t teach the correct behavior in a given situation I Punishment must be given an explanation of appropriate behavior I EX girl yells and swears at dog and gets punished she won39t know how to express her anger next time Chapter 6 Page 7 o Harsh punishment especially physical punishment teaches aggressive behavior I Parent is setting an aggressive model for the child I EX when parent spanks a child parent isteaching Child39s behavior has aversive consequences I Being powerful means controlling other people39s behavior 0 Harsh punishment is often ineffective at producing behavior change I When immediate threat of punishment is gone subject continues undesired behavior I EX Child will stop engaging in behavior when parent is looking 0 Harsh punishment often leadsto negative emotional reactions I Induce anger fear and anxiety I EX child fears parent 0 APA istrying to avoid physical punishment for children spanking O Culturally removing this punishment is a slow process 0 1990s more than 90 of US parents report physically punishing their children I 100 report using on toddlers o 2006 91of college students have been hit by their parents and some with an owed 0 Slow decline in percent of parents using physical punishment but still high 65 68 0 Countries all over the world have enacted bans on physical punishment 0 Although physical punishment is being avoided discipline is still taking place 0 Effective discipline 1 Tell the child what the appropriate behavior is and then reinforce behavior 2 Minimize situations that tempt the child to engage in bad behavior 3 Use punishment that really is punishing If the child doesn39t find punishment aversive it will fail to control behavior 4 Punishment must occur immediately after bad behavior occurs 5 Punishment must occur each and every time the bad behavior occurs Otherwise the bad behavior is partially reinforced when the child escapes the punishment 6 Remain calm while you are punishing child This will help ensure that you do not abuse the child 0 Make sure to reinforce good behavior as much as punishing bad behavior 0 Discuss with person the consequences that they find reinforcing before conditioning 0 Primary reinforcer one that is directly reinforcing o EX biological food water warm bed sex 0 Secondary reinforcer lead to primary reinforcers o EX money money has worth because it satisfies primary reinforcers o Token economy reinforces desired behavior with a token of some sort 0 EX a poker chip gold star later used for primary reinforcers I M ostly directed towards schoolchildren o Hastwo main advantages I Effective when trying to simultaneously modify a certain number of behaviors in a group I Immediate inforcement with a token is possible doesn39t always lead to primary reinforcer o Reinforcement istoo continuous which bringsthreat of extinction THE ROLE OF COGNITION IN LEARNING o All three ways of learning habituation classical and operant conditional learning require an subject to do something before learning 0 Habituation emitting a reflex 0 Classical unconditioned response Chapter 6 Page 8 O Operant random behavior that is reinforced or punished All researchers viewed these ways of learning as biological O Cognition was barely involved Skinner believed that they may be involved but can39t be studied Behaviorism study of observable behavior over the study of the mind 0 Completely ignores the influence of the cognitive process Wolfgang Kohler 18871967 became aware that cognitive process is involved in learning 0 Observed that chimpanzees didn39t always use trial and error they analyzed a situation before attempting to solve it I He put a banana and a stick in front of a chimpanzee in a cage I Chimpanzee analyzed situation and reached for stick and solved problem 0 Insight a sudden realization about how to solve a problem that occurs after an organism has studied the problem for a period of time Edward Tolman 18861959 found additional support of learning cognitively 0 Two groups of rats completing a maze I One group rewarded after completion I One group not rewarded o Rewarded group faster than nonrewarded group O Started rewarding non rewarded group 0 Non rewarded group gained speed 0 Proves learning wo reward o Latent learning learning that isn39t directly observed by behavior 0 Cognitive map mental representation of the maze in their heads Chapter 6 Page 9 Section 64 Observational Learning or Modeling Learning by Watching Others Tuesday October 6 2015 602 PM ALBERT BAN DU RA AND THE BOBO DOLL EXPERIM ENT Albert Bandura 19603 conducted classical observational learning experiments BOBO DOLL EXPERIM ENT 0 Children watched films in which awoman beat up a Bobo doll 0 After children saw the films Bandura and colleagues placed them in a room with Bobo dolls and observed their behavior without their knowledge o If children imitated behavior they had conducted observational learning No consequence and reward of model in video encouraged children to beat up doll Punished model discouraged children from beating up doll All groups had learned how to beat up doll but some were hesitant due to the threat of punishment Learning doesn39t always involve engaging in behavior Children mostly react based on what they have observed 0 Researchers Donna M umme and Anne Fernald 2003 found that children as young as 12 months old pay attention to how models react to certain things 0 Children pay attention to what their parents are watching Prejudices and stereotypes can originate from the child39s observation of the parent OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING AND COGNITION Conditioning and observational learning are clearly seen in certain conditions The Four Step Process 1 Attention observer pays attention to model39s behavior before they model it Children model after people who are warm nurturant or powerful 2 Retention in memory observer must retain a cognitive representation or memory of model39s behavior 3 Reproduction of the behavior observer must have mental representation of behavior stored in memory that can be retrieved and used to reproduce behavior 4 Motivation figuring out how to reproduce behavior the observer must be motivated to reproduce behavior if there is reward or no Chapter 6 Page 10 consequence of behavior Chapter 6 Page 11