General Pysch. Memory Chapter & Week 7/8 notes
General Pysch. Memory Chapter & Week 7/8 notes 1001.0
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Zelaya on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1001.0 at University of Colorado taught by Ketels,Shaw Lione in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
0 Feature detection recognizing the parts or quotfeaturesquot that make up a pattern and then their combination 0 Face perception faces are important to babies 0 Babies look longer to faces than to other objects 0 Babies can tell their mothers39 faces from strangers39 faces 0 We seem to process faces differently than objects 0 We recognize faces holistically objects are recognized by their features 0 What vs where in the visual perception o inferior temporal lobe lesions ventral stream impairs visual object identi cation quotwhatquot agnosia inability to recognize faces objects categorical things 0 Parietal lobe lesions lmpairs spatial perception quotwherequot dorsal stream hemineglect not being able to process one side of visual eld unilateral neglect 0 Example of double dissociation two lesions producing opposite effects What vs Where in Visual Perception Posterior parietal E r Ell 51mm cortex we 39l v Primary visual Ventral stream inferior ternrall cortex Where stream on top what stream on bottom Hallucinations Perception without sensation Visual do we need eyes to see Auditory schizophrenia epilepsy Olfactory smell epilepsy Tactile touch phantom limb amp rubber hand 0 munlcatlon between Neurons i emenrei seieri39er e e a in fteen Eleven 3 nEUren39s exen uniill reetlhi rig e tinyjunt lleml lam own as a synapse In Branding neuren Rustedsling resume he J4 e ie Fi39 39tE E iav a ending Ilierm li Quinn J it if r gt r FEEHJH quot Eliuptake g A 2 When an eclien pullenti e l 3 The sen cling rie unzim Minimally reatl erll E5i3931e Williai ilmg I u 7 j 39 reaches en emn39ieminel excessnewmlransmitmmelecules quotE UV WB Emilie if quotk f 39 x it stimulates the releeee ell a meEEE called reupi eiaze quot h neereireesmiiter meleeules These lm eleeules tress the semantic gap and bind Ee receplm sites en the y 5 a reeelwing neuren This Synapti gap l fl A a ellews ele rlimllyr charged quot 39 I stems see Figure 23 In r 1 I E enm ll ie receiving zmeairelm f ilkEmma VLE1RJRVJ ix quot antEl textile errinhibit a new schen patentlal REEF WEE m1 Neur rtmnsmi ter FEDEI39WFIE I39I39EilllEIJI39I Erase the signal reaches the end cf the seen a neuretrsnsmilll39ter released frem the synaptic eleft It binds with lreeepter sites en amuther neulrunl esusinlg anellher eetiem 39r39attemtiel Antianxiety and sedative hypnotic drugs Sedation decrease anxiety amp inhibitions Classes Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Alcohol Mechanism of action 0 Promote effectiveness of GABA receptors in the CNS Barbiturates promote and at high doses stimulate GABA receptors GABA chief CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter Promotes hyperpolarization via increased cl in ux How does alcohol affect synapses alcohol has multiple effects on neurons it alters neuron membranes ion channels enzymes and receptors o It binds directly to receptors for acetylcholine serotonin and gamma amnibutyric acid gaba and glutamate Why do I black out when I drink Retrieval failure LTM Encoding failure STM Alcohol and memory amnesia and shortterm memory function during experimentally induced intoxication Short term memory was signi cantly and progressively impaired with increasing levels of intoxication Subjects with accurate STM had intact 24hour memory Synesthesia multimodal perception of unimodal events Alternatively can be unimodal perception of an event in a different modality that it was originally presented 0 Highly variable neurological phenomenon Essentially sensory pathways become crossed Results in differently perception compared to nonsynthesis Most common graphemegt color synesthesia numbers are inherently colored consistently appear in the same color every time o A heritable condition but not a disease 0 Up to 4 of the population System 391 Type 1 System 2 Type E nendeelera ve l i fWEll39lhEl preeedurel l deeleretive verbal independent ef Wl39ll ll e en en dependent n WM attentien El linke general intelligenee y to g capacity unlimited Eapeeity limited Selective attention we must selectively direct out attention to an amount of information Unilateral visual neglect Damage to parietal lobe lmpairs ability to consciously attend to the side of space that is opposite of the damaged hemisphere Right parietal damagegt leftward neglect Vision normal but attentional control impaired Memory 0 Memory from the cognitive perspective memory involves the encoding storage and retrieval of information Neuroscientists are more likely to de ne memory as learning induced changes in the activity of neurons Encoding the memory process of quottranslatingquot sensory impressions into meaningful perceptions that may then be stored as memory 0 Storage The memory process whereby meaningful perceptions are retained as memory Retrieval recognizing or recalling something from longterm memory Modal model of memory the traditional model of memory initially devised by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin The modal model views memory as consisting of three stages or stores sensory memory shortterm memory and long term memory Sensory memory the memory stage that very brie y stores large amounts of eeting sensory impressions Sensory memory is comprised of iconic store visual and echoic store auditory Shortterm memory STM STM is a memory store used for attending to information in the short term Short term memory is limited in the length of time the memory can remain active no longer than about 20 seconds It is almost limited in the amount of information that can be stored No more than about four to ve items or chunks of info STM is one component of the modal model of memory 0 Maintenance rehearsal actively thinking repeating or thinking about information so that it remains in shortterm memory 0 Memory span the amount of information that can be held in a memory store at any one time The capacity of short term memory averages four to ve items or chunks of information Chunk Individual items that are grouped together in memory because they are meaningfully associated with one another but only weakly related or unrelated to items in other chunks Longterm memory LTM The deepest level of encoding information a theoretically limited memory store that contains memories for facts autobiographical events and learned skills LTM is a component of the modal model of memory Acoustic encoding memory encoding according to the sound of the stimulus being encoded Visual encoding memory encoding according to the visual appearance of the stimulus Semantic encoding memory encoding according to the meaning of the stimulus Elaborative rehearsal mentally encoding information into long term memory in a way that is personally meaningful and associates that new information with information that already exists in long term memory Retrieval cue any hint or association that helps one retrieve a long term memory The three types of encoding acoustic visual amp semantic Acoustic and visual are more typical of STM while semantic is more typical of LTM Contextdependent memory when retrieval of a memory is enhanced in contexts that were similar to the one that existed when the memory was encoded Statedependent memory when retrieval of a memory is enhanced by internal states such as mood or drug effects that were present when the memory was encoded Working memory de ned in different ways by different theorists is often used in place of STM but it is when one recalls things from LTM to work in unison with the information being processed from STM There are two types of LTM Explicit amp implicit Explicit memory conscious memories for personal experiences or facts about the world AKA 39declarative memories39 because we can declarethat is consciously recall Episodic memory subtype of explicit Memories acquired through personal experience 0 Semantic memory subtype of explicit Memory for facts one has learned as opposed to personal experiences lmplicit memory a memory that affects how we behave without our conscious awareness of the memory itself unconscious Procedural memory implicit memory for skills involving motor coordination Repetition priming when performance on a task improves as a result of previous implicit exposure Anterograde amnesia is evidence of the existence of distinct episodic and semantic memory systems The disorder is when the hippocampus suffers damage as well as surrounding tissue of the temporal lobe the individual can form new semantic memories but not episodic memories 0 The seven quotsinsquot of memory 1 Transience the quotfadingquot of memories from LTM Transience describes what most people mean when they are quotforgettingquot ex simple forgetting of long past events 2 Absentmindedness Lapses of attention that result in forgetting ex forgetting location of car keys 3 Blocking information is present but temporarily inaccessible ex tip of the tongue phenomenon 4 Misattribution memories are attributed to an incorrect source ex confusing a dream for a memory 5 Suggestibility when memory is distorted due to suggestions implanted by others ex leading questions or misinformation can produce false memories 6 Bias current attitudes feelings and beliefs distort memories for the past ex recalling ones past feelings as having been more similar to current feelings than was actually the case 7 Persistence unwanted memories that we cannot forget ex traumatic memories which usually have attached emotional feelings Practice Questions Q The tip of the tongue phenomenon would be considered to be an example of which of the seven sins of memory A blocking Q Which of the following is most likely to be true Fashbulb memories are extremely accurate A Many memory researchers have shifted their focus from questions such as quothow much information can we storequot and quothow long can we store informationquot to quothow accurate is the information we store in memoryquot Memory failures are clear evidence that our memory is defective There is no evidence that psychostimulants increase cognitive performance All of the options are correct Q Which of the following practices lead to better learning regardless of the context of learning and testing A retrieval practice Q quotChunkingquot helps memorization because it helps relieve strain on our capacity limited memory A working Q When you remember what it was like to sit in this class on the rst day you39re primarily using A Episodic memory Q You meet your new boss and as soon as she walks away you realize that you have already quotforgottenquot her name A more accurate description than quotforgettingquot might be A encoding failure Q People who studied a word list underwater had better recall because the words were memories A under water contextdependent Q Which of the following neural phenomena are likely to underlie learning chemical changes structural changes long term potentiation synaptic plasticity A all of the other options are true Q In the context of the modal model of memory atkinson amp shiffrin which of the following is usually suggested to cause the recency effect or the recall advantage of words hat are presented later in a list A short term memory Q Chunking and mnemonic devices help us remember things because A They help provide a structure for the new information and reduce strain on working memory Q You meet your new boss and as soon as she walks away you repeat her name in your mind over and over again to make sure that you remember it This is called A rehearsal Q Now that you39ve known your boss for a long time you don39t even have to think about remembering her name As soon as you see her you just know This automatic process primarily involves which type of memory A implicit memory Q Which of the following types of memory may have an unlimited capacity and duration impicit ongterm semantic procedura A all of the options are correct Q Which of the following terms is relevant to the process of structuring information for better retrieval chunking hiera rchies sefreference mnemonic devices A all options are correct Q You meet your new boss and as soon as she walks away you realize that you have already quotforgottenquot her name This failure might be due to the short duration of information storage in A sensory memory Q Think of the best time you ever had Which of the following neural areas was most important to successfully remember it just now A hippocampus Q The memory chapter offers suggestions to better prepare for exams Which of the following does the book suggest A distribute your study sessions over time Q rehearsal results in processing than rehearsal A elaborative deeper maintenance Q Personal experiences would be considered part of A explicit memory Q The constructive nature of memory leads to many failures Examples of memory failures can be found in eyewitness testimony the propaganda effect some cases of repressed memory the misinformation effect A all options are correct Learning Processes Behaviorism Classical conditioning Operant conditioning law of effect learning any process through which experience at one time can alter an individuals behavior at a future time behaviorism o The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses 0 John B Watson BF Skinner Classical conditioning neutral stimulus will elicit no reaction Unconditioned stimulus will elicit a re ex action 0 Neutral stimulus will elicit a re ex action Conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response 0 Over many trials unconditioned stimulus becomes associated with neutral stimulus Unconditioned response salivationA response to an unconditioned stimulus naturally occurring salivation at smell of food 0 Eye blinks at blast of air Startle reaction in babies 0 Classical conditioning phenomenon Extinction completely stopping responses to stimuli Spontaneous recovery 0 Never as strong as original response but is still strong Generalization responding to a stimulus near or similar to the conditioned stimulus Discrimination training getting the subject to stop generalization Law of effect cat box experiment puzzle box the cat tries things that are intuitive to cats Over many trials the only thing to get the cat out of the box is the lever by accidental bump of the lever the cat notices The weak association becomes scratching at the box and ineffective methods the strong association becomes pressing the lever operant conditioning Operant conditioning terms Shaping Consquences positive and negative reinforcement positive and negative punishment