Lecture 9: Crusades
Lecture 9: Crusades History 171
Popular in Europe, 400-1400
Popular in History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Notetaker on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 171 at DePaul University taught by Andrew Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Europe, 400-1400 in History at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
10 8 1 5 Lecture 9 Crusades We Will examine I just war causes 4 crusades rst crusade 109599 four lowlights Violence Christianity I Christ s cruci xion reminder I mediated uponhighlighted Martyrs deep religious signi cance to suffering Martyros Witness 4th c theologians nsform attitudes to violence Why Bellum Iustum I Duty of Christian state gt achieve justice I old Testament style I Reaction to insufferable wrong I aggression I oppression I defensive war Merovingians amp Catholic Church I Clovis I catholicism I sacred kingship Fusion of I Roman Christian and Barbarian violent coup justi edking anointed sword of holy oil Fusion of RomanoChristianGermanic Violence violent society just cause militant Christianity Idea of just war becomes refined in Early Middle Ages I Killing requires penance PERIOD I Private Interest vs Public war I Private interest gt big trouble I public war gt exception for the knights bc you re doing it for God The Feudal System I Oaths of fealty religious I Christianity gt Glue Results I Holy War I popes kings sponsors I Relics manifestation of God s power vengeance The First Crusade 11th c Internal Expansion of Western Europe I Land Clearance new arable Three explanations i invasions end ii Environmental changes 7 OO 1 150 iii new techniques and technologies Internal External Expansion of Europe needs of feudal lords gt driving force of change muni cence war gt private warfare primogeniture Juvenes Crusades underlying causes I need to redirect violence I pax dei I clean 11th c Religious revival Laymen seek forgiveness for violence how can cannot knights atone for sins by ghting a just war Papal Monarchy concept of christendom I pope invigorated Urban II Cluniacs I pope military AND religious hierarchy 7 I bellum justum papallywnctuioned Knights milites Christi Western Europeans larger Christian community I non Christians gt more visible as outsiders European Ideas of Islam in 11th c Epic poems evil Muslims vs Christian nobility I defensive war I Muslims Aggressors I Defllingpolluting Holy Land I Islam as polytheistic Jerusalem Jesus amp Just war Jerusalem center of world Millenarianism need to direct violence outward Jesus gt feudal overlord of Jerusalem I pilgrimage gt penitential I Death gt salvation Jerusalem world s living relic Must be in righteous hands Immediate cause for crusades Seljuk turks crush byzantine battle of manzikert Definition of crusade I Term crusade not used until 15th c I Rather to take the cross sewed crosses on tunics Peasants popular crusade I peter the hermit I 25000 ppl mostly nonknightly classes show up to Constantinople AleXius comnenus upset because he wanted a real army across the Bosporus Official or seigniorial crusade I mainly knights Normandy extremely erce old Viking settlers I juvenes of minor noble Norman Selconception Rollo the Viking Wrote histories of themselves I characteristics erce bold warriors dynamism natural conquerors and leaders cunning ruthless