History 101 Aztec Civilization
History 101 Aztec Civilization HIS 101
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catie Naylor on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at a university taught by Dr. Chambers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
AZTECS One of the quotGolden Agequot civilizations in ancient MesoAmerica They established an empire using terror They believed sacri ce made the world go round 0 They could guarantee a decent life through human sacri ce o Believed everything happened for a reason For example a drought was caused by a curse 0 They kept the world in balance through human sacri ce Totec Empire 0 Lasted from 9501150 CE 0 Thrived at the same time as the Anasazi 0 They probably collapsed due to weather changes drought In 1375 CE the Aztecs were told by a god to leave their current location and go searching for an eagle with a snake in its mouth sitting on a cactus Where they nd the eagle was to be where they would build their new city 0 They left and went searching for the eagle 0 They found a giant lake and in the center was an island They explored the island and found the eagle sitting on a cactus 0 They built their new city on this island Tenochtitlan was the capital of this new civilization 0 Eventually they drained the lake and expanded the city 0 300000 people populated this city 0 The city was planned 0 Located in Modern Mexico City By 1500 CE the Aztec population had reached 25 million The center of their world was the Great Pyramid of the Sun 0 20 years and 10000 workers were needed to build it o It can be seen from several miles away The Aztecs are known for their human sacri ce 0 They believed that human blood fed the gods and established balance in the world 0 Emperors even shed their own blood to feed the gods 3 Major Aztec gods 0 1 Tezcatlipoca the Supreme God The god of power over everything fate destiny and death Name means quotsmoky mirrorquot 0 They pictured him as a mirror made of obsidian o 2 Huitzilopochtli the Sun God God of the sun war and ancestors Most sacri ces were made to him Sacri ces to him guaranteed the sun would come up 0 He was fed by human sacri ces Thought of as the founder of Tenochtitlan He told them to go nd the eagle Name means quothumming bird on the leftquot Represented as a humming bird 0 3 Quetzalcoatl the Miracle god God of maize farming and wind Was responsible for the crops he fed the people Represented by a feathered serpent They believed that he could make himself appear human 0 When he did he had blue eyes and blonde hair It was believed that he in human form walked towards the rising sun He said he would return and then walked into the Atlantic Ocean Aztecs possessed a warrior culture 0 Every emperor was expected to launch a war to gather as many ca ptives as possible 0 The Aztecs had a set of laws 0000 0 Used a legalistic system All offenses were punished harshly All laws applied equally to the rich and poor There were no excuses for breaking the laws there was only right and wrong They were very stern For example alcohol was illegal o In 1451 CE a major drought occurred during the reign of Moctezuma 1 O 0 They thought they needed to do something to bring the rain They fought with their neighbors and captured about 20000 people These people were sacri ced and then some of their body parts would be eaten This did not make them cannibals because this was not their main source of nourishment or diet This was strictly ritualistic o Anthroooohadv ritualistic eating of human esh 0 Between 13751520 there were 11 different Aztec Emperors O O Moctezuma the title some of the emperors adopted Moctezuma 1 ruled from 14401469 CE O He expanded the empire to the coast Taking captives to sacri ce Took the captives goods and money Aztecs had control over almost the entire region Moctezuma 2 ruled 15021520CE The last Aztec emperor Sent an army to conquer and They fought 4 wars with the Tlaxcalan a civilization on the east coast 0 The Tlaxcalan had managed to hold out without being taken 1519 CE the Spanish came to the Americas 0 Hernan Cortes the most famous of these early conquistadors o The Tlaxcalan believed these people were Quetzalcoatl and allied O with them against the Aztecs Dona Marina a young Tlaxcalan woman who learned Spanish and became the translator for the Spanish Became Hernan Cortes s lover and the mother of his child She is the rst mother of a crioo creole In 2 years 600 Spanish troops and a few thousand Tlaxcalan men defeated the Aztecs Aztec people died by the thousands by disease 0 Small pox in uenza and measles Measles became known as the Red Plague by the EngHsh The Aztec population fell to 5 million from its previous 25 million Cortes brought the end of the Aztec Golden Age 9095 of the Native American population died within the rst 100 years of contact with the Europeans On August 13 1521 the Aztecs surrendered The Spanish rode into Tenochtitlan Cortes declared everything in the name of the Spanish King Called this land and civilization New Spain By 1521 the Aztec empire was abolished
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