Week 6--Lectures 14-15
Week 6--Lectures 14-15 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Popular in Art History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Lecture 14 Etruscan Art Italian Art before the Romans October 5 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Etruscan reverence for the dead impressive funerary architecture in large scale cemeteries or nekropoli cities of the dead fitted with furnishings for the afterlife and decorated with images complementing celebratory rituals funerary banquets o Etruscan adaptation of Greek Temple architecture and religious sculpture sharing elements from the Greek pantheon o Etruscans veristic portraiture and lifelike images of animals in bronze patronized by leaders of Roman republic The Etruscans inhabited the Italian peninsula Funerary Art 0 The Etruscans invested a lot of time detail and material into their funerary art 0 They preferred to use terra cotta 0 They were most prominent in the 8th3rd Century BCE Historical Background from slide 0 753 BCE Alleged Foundation of Rome by Romulus 0 750500 BCE Etruscan civilization spreads from Tuscan north to the Po south to Campania and Rome 0 509 BCE Rome republic formed after rebellion against Etruscan King Tarquinius new republic ruled by Senate and two Consuls Junius Brutus named first consul o 350 BCE Rome conquers southern Etruria from Etruscans o 273 BCE Rome conquers Tarquinia and Cervetere o 24614GBCE Punic Wars Rome rests control of Western Mediterranean from Carthage and its empire Rome is becoming more prominent during the Etruscan period Cerveteri o The city of the dead 0 Domed tombs o Excavated down into the earth 0 Arranged as if it was a house for the living I They were made as if the dead would be living in the house and doing the normal things people would do in a house 0 The Etruscans were the first people to have regular visitation of their dead 0 Because the people didn t want the dead to come back and haunt them they would provide the dead with many goods to keep them there 0 Kleitias and Ergotimos The Francois Vase Archaic Greek Attic volute krater ceramic BlackFigure ca 570 BCE found at Etruscan cemetery of Fonte Rotella near Chiusi I This was a Greek vase that was exported to Italy I It was found in a Etruscan tomb which suggests a lot of exporting with the Greeks I Foreign objects show a high degree of taste since they have to get them from other places 0 Etruscan Fibula in gold repouss from RegoliniGalassi Tomb Cerveteri ca 650 640 BCE I I Shoulder clap was worn by men and women I It was made by the Etruscans I The prints are similar to the Mesopotamians featuring animals in profile I This shows probably royalty laying down and relaxing while naked servants attend them 0 Tomb of the Reliefs Cerveteri tufa with stucco reliefs late 4th to early 3rd c BCE I Carved Stucco work 0 The columns are borrowed from Greek 0 Holes in the wall are for urns 0 Have terra cotta pillow inside as if they would be beds 0 Tools vessels daggers rope and even a dog were put in stucco on the walls 0 This was so that they dead had everything they would have at home with them 0 Tomb of Reliefs Cerveteri relief showing Cerberus amp Hades em I This shows a nod to Greek mythology and religion 0 Etruscans adopted Greek ideas of the Underworld 0 Sarcophagus of the Married Couple terracotta sculpture from tomb at Cerveteri ca 520 BCE I They are probably pouring oil onto each other s hands as an aphrodisiac so they can have sex Even the afterlife can have the pleasures of sex I Features borrowed from the Greek 0 Almond eyes 0 Archaic smile Apollo of Veii painted terracotta ca 500490 BCE Exterior architecture for outside of a temple Apollo is rushing forward to help Herakles o This is a direct reflection to the Greeks Similar to the Greek Kurous except it is clothed Temple of Minerva at Veii Reconstruction after Vitruvius ca 500 BCE 0 One principle entrance with a single staircase o This is then taken over in Roman architecture Capitoline SheWolf cast bronze ca 500480 BC This might not be Etruscan It s not actually known 0 Similar to o Chimera of Arezzo cast bronze ca 400350 BCE Head of a Man quotLucius Junius Brutusquot cast bronze late 4th c BCE o 1 o This is an example of portraiture 0 Made for the Romans by the Etruscans 0 We don t actually know who this is but it is thought to be Lucius Junius Brutus the first Roman consul after the defeat of the Etruscans o The bust was a later addition not part of the original Statue of Aulus Metellus quotArringatore or Orator cast bronze early lst century BCE This is a Roman magistrate or Orator It was made to be put in a public space 0 Memory of someone o Toga I Worn by important people 0 Magistrates orators leaders etc 0 There was no attempt to idealize his face it is old The name was in Etruscan characters so we know that this man was either of Etruscan origin or the statue was made by an Etruscan Lecture 15 Ancient Rome from the Republic to Augustus October 7 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Adaptation of Etruscan and Greek art amp architecture 0 Roman Engineering Innovations combing beauty and practicality 0 Role of public portraiture of statesmen generals emperor in promoting political ideology 0 Promotion of idea of pax augustea as era of prosperity 0 Elevation of imperial figure as model of religious piety and family values connections to myths of Rome Historical Background from slide 0 509 BCE Rome republic formed after rebellion against Etruscan King ruled by Senate and two Consuls Junius Brutus named first consul o 350 BCE Rome conquers southern Etruria from Etruscans o 273 BCE Rome conquers Tarquina and Cervetere o 246146BCE Punic Wars Rome rests control of Western Mediterranean from Carthage and its empire 0 150 BCE Rome conquers Greece and Macedonia 5644BCE Rome conquers Gaul and eastern Mediterranean provinces under Julius Caesar o 43 BCE murder ofJulius Caesar military triumvirate set up to govern the republic under Octavian Antony and Lepidus o 27 BCE Octavian ceases absolute power as Caesar Augustus and Imperator o lzBCE Octavian named Pontifex Maximus Rome 0 The origins of the Roman Empire begin with the defeat of the Etruscan King Temple of Fortuna Virilis or Portunus Forum Boarum Rome 2nd c BCE Ionic Order This is an adaptation of the Etruscan temples o The scale is different to the Greek temples but the model is very similar 0 The cella has solid walls o It is raised father off the ground o It has engaged columns 0 There is a quotdeep porch on one end that has the only entrance 0 The Romans loved the idea of deception Pont du Gard Roman aqueduct outside Nimes in France 16 BCE The Romans needed a fresh water supply so they created the aqueducts to carry water from a great distance away o It contains the Roman arch o The top part carries the water and it would have been covered to reduce evaporation 0 They made sure that it was aesthetically pleasing o The Romans also had indoor plumbing Portrait of Roman General from Tivoli ca 7550 BC The head suggests aging while the torso suggests young age and that he is in great shape 0 The body is similar to the Greek herogod nakedness o A general never would have been seen naked 0 Before Caesar there was a glorification of the military Augustus Primaporta marble copy after bronze original 20 BCE 0 Also known as Octavian o This was found in the house of his wife o It is a marble copy 0 The gesture is similar to that of an orator 0 He is shown in military costume and not in a toga 0 His bare feet show attributes to divinity and heroes 0 Cupid riding a dolphin at his feet shows that he is sacred to Venus o It is an illusion that his ancestry goes back to Aeneid and therefore Venus I Julius Caesar claimed this ancestry as well I It is said that he took Octavian as his adopted son 0 His face is indifferent idealized youthful o The ears give him a sense of individualization 0 There are many allusions to Greek ideals o The deep set eyes are a Hellenistic technique I Top Dawn of New Age as Chariot of Aurora roscida rides across the heavens Personified by Aeolus as Venus holding torch leads the way I Middle Return of Roman Standards by the Parthians after Augustus victory in ZOBCE redeems Roman loss of SBBCE I Sides Pacified provinces of Spain eagleheaded sword and Dalmatia or Gaul I Bottom Aurea Copia golden abundance nourishes twins Romulus and Remus I Persona gods of Augustus Apollo riding griffin Diana riding stag Ara Pacis Augustae Rome marble relief 139 BCE fr West o Altar of Peace o It was a public monument o It shows that Octavian is a successor of Aeneid o It was a religious monument used for offerings to the gods in thanksgiving South frieze of Ara Pacis Priests and Imperial family Ara Pacis east side Allegory of Augustan peace showing Tellus Mater with winds of the sea and the land emblems of prosperity and fertility Tiberius alighting fr Chariot before Augustus and Livia in guises of Jupiter and Juno 0 Triumph of Roman soldiers on Northern frontier taking captives