PSYCH1010: Memory, Stage Theory, Improving Long Term Memory
PSYCH1010: Memory, Stage Theory, Improving Long Term Memory PSY 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
PSYCH 1 010 Introduction to Psychology Dr Watson Monday 105 15 Review Eliminative reductionism RgtIgtE Radical behaviorism SgtR Cognitivism focus on the mind persons are products of mental operations and are caused by the mind RESEARCH INTO MEMORY 1 What three basic methods do cognitive psychologists use for studying memory Recall test remember a previously presented stimulus 39 Recognition test remembering of a previously presented stimulus by selecting it from among alternatives 39 Relearning test relearn a previously learned task 2 In using these how might independent variables be manipulated to construct an understanding of the human memory system Recall test read trigrams and then recall them trigram XQP VDF CtC 0 Independent variab1e manipu1ate the length of the list the amount of time subject is allowed to study the list the recall interval time from stimulus presentation to recall cued vs uncued recall 39 Dependent variable memory Recognition test remembering of a previously presented stimulus by selecting it from among alternatiVGS 39 Independent variable other options available to be chosen from Relearning test learn something time passes and releam it Independent variable how much time passes What methods of studying memory are involved in police lineups multiplechoice tests and essay exams Police lineups recognition test 39 Multiple choice tests recognition test Essay exams recall test Which approach to studying memory is called the method of savings and why Re1earning test bits and pieces of memory are saved even when it seems as though it39s been forgotten What is the fundamental insight or basic assumption of the stage theory of memory Stage theory of memory memory is not one thing but three things it occurs in stages What is the first stage of memory and how would it be defined in formal terms 39 Sensory registration brief lingering of stimuli in sensory systems Example at a birthday party a camera ash blinds you greatly but brie y What are the two basic questions that cognitive psychologists would like to ask and then answer about this and the other stages of memory 10 39 What is the capacity of a stage of memory Very large 0 What is the duration of each stage Very short less than 1 second Illustrate how a cognitive psychologist might try to answer these questions about the first stage of memory based upon the study of George Sperling 1960 0 He p1aced an individua1 in front of a TScope letters would ash across the screen for 120 second and asked him to report the whole report only a few letters were recalled 39 Then he called for a partial report when the scree ashes a low tone sounds and one remembers the bottom line a high tone sounds and one remembers the top line 0 Duration manipulates the recall interval from immediate to delayed it is less than 1 second What apparatus did Sperling 1960 use in his study What was his general procedure What did his whole report and partial report conditions suggest about this stage of memory as it relates to visual stimuli 39 Tachistoscope TSCOPG What does the Sperling 1960 study suggest about the ability of psychologists to be objective about processes in the black box that Skinner put between stimuli and responses 0 No one can be objective about the block box because it has to be observed and should become the main focus of study Wednesday 10715 STAGE THEORY OF MEMORY 1 Again what is the first stage of memory and how might it be defined in formal terms 39 Sensory registration brief lingering of stimuli in sensory systems What is the capacity and duration of this first stage of memory 39 Capacity is very large and duration is very small 310 second What three processes move information from the first to the second stage of memory How might each be defined 39 Sensory gating process of attending to some sensory systems but not others choosing between stimuli 39 Selective attention process of attending to some stimuli Within a sensory System but not others 39 Mental representation process of making sense out of stimuli so they can be moved to the next stage of memory interpretation of life is based on experience How did people react to the first movie ever shown What might their reactions say about one of these three processes 39 People panicked when they saw a locomotive coming towards them via motion picture Interpretation of stimuli is based on life experience 5 What is the second stage of memory and how might it be defined Short term memory more or less the same thing as your conscious awareness 6 What is the capacity of this second stage of memory How might efforts to explain this capacity be understood in terms of juggling 39 Capacity is 7 2 things One can only handle between 59 things at one time s0 to add Something 116W SomGthiIlg old must be dropped 7 What is the duration of this second stage of memory What procedure did Peterson and Peterson 1959 use in attempting to answer this question What is rehearsal Why did Peterson and Peterson have their subjects count backwards by three Duration about 20 seconds definitely less than 30 seconds 39 Subject is given letters and numbers XBD 127 and must count down from 127 by threes until researcher yells quotrecallquot and the subject has to recall the lettCIS XBD thC r call interval is manipulated to see how long the letters remain in one39s short term memory Rehearsal processing of information so that it can be remembered counting backwards by threes prevents subject from rehearsal 8 What process moves information from the second to the third stage of memory Storage process of moving information from short term memory to long term memory 9 What is the third stage of memory and how might it be defined in formal terms 0 Long term memory more or1ess permanent storage of information 10 What process moves information from the third back to the second stage of memory 0 Korsakoffs Syndrome due to extreme alcoholism there is a deficiency in vitamin B1 Thiamine and a disrupt in digestion 0 A symptom called confabulation can be found memories are distorted and made up Retrieval process of bringing long term memory back into conscious awarenessshort term memory 11 What is the capacity of the third stage of memory 39 Capacity unlimited unless brain damage occurS 12 What is the duration of the third stage of memory Duration assuming no brain damage occurs long term memory is lifelong no clear limit 13 What study conducted by Hermann Ebbinghaus suggested how this question about duration might be answered 0 He tested his own memory system by trying to remember Don Juan Tennyson after 22 years of not hearing it since he had to memorize and recite it in grade school It was tricky but he was able to piece it together Friday 10915 IMPROVING LONG TERM MEMORY 1 What metaphor might be useful in conceptualizing longterm memory A filing system with many different categories and places to store memories Many times there is so much information stored that retrieval gets very difficult How you store information affects how you retrieve it later 39 Maintainable What two broad categories of memory are stored in longterm memory Implicit memory and Explioit memory How might these two categories of memory be defined 39 Implicit memory nonconscious behavioral memories not oXproSSCd in Words and Cannot be expressed to others procedural memories motor skills Examples Riding a bike driving a car emotional Conditioned Responses etc 39 Explicit memory memories that can be declared in words also called declarative memories semantic ideas facts and knowledge and episodic memory memory for life episodes what has happened in one39s life such as what he ate for breakfast or where he vacationed last summer What more specific types of memory belong within these two categories of longterm memory 39 Implicit procedural skills 39 Explicit semantic ideas and episodic memories With what two types of rehearsal might information be moved from shortterm to longterm memory Maintenance rehearsal shallow processing maintainrepeat information in Short term memory so that is can remembered 39 Elaborating rehearsal deep processing active processing of information in terms of broader meaning After which type of rehearsal is the retrieval of information often better 0 Retrieval is better with elaborating rehearsal information is placed within context so it39s easier to find relevant information How might the improved retrieval associated with this superior type of rehearsal be conceptualized in terms of the basic filing metaphor we have used to describe longterm memory 39 You not only remember the information but you also remember where you put it you label sections of memory within context How might the advice previously given in class about reading the text be explained in terms of the two types of rehearsal and in terms of the metaphor we have used to describe long term memory Read the chapter summary to metaphorically label that section of information when you read the chapter and repeat both steps context is elaborated so that thC information iS in a common location then take the multiple choice test to make sure the information has stuck with you What is the difference between Psychology 1010 and gossip as it relates to longterm memory What does this difference suggest about psychological processes that might in uence our longterm memory 39 Gossip you never engage in maintenance rehearsal like you have to in psych1010 you immediately elaborate and want more in depth information What you care about in uences your ability to maintain information elaboration comes naturally once you find something interesting to you 10 In class we discussed the case history of a 12yearold boy who repeatedly asked the question Excuse me mister am I still John Paul J ones How might this behavior be explained in terms of the stage theory of memory 39 He remembered everything about his life on the farm with his father and brother and deceased diabetic mother he was a diabetic who was plunged into a comatose state after an insulin deficiGIle His short term memory was ruined and he cannot remember anything for more than about 2030 seconds now he continuously had a dawning awareness every 2030 seconds that he was not on the farm anymore and surrounded by strange people He is trapped in an eternal cycle due to a lack of memory storage