HIST1020: Inca Empire, Aztec and Inca Military Conquests
HIST1020: Inca Empire, Aztec and Inca Military Conquests HIST 1020
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations c 1000 1800 Althouse Monday 10515 INCA EMPIRE 14381530s Inca mountain empire in South America Andes Mountains 15 million people 39 Subdued serious lived and built their empire within their own means 39 No written language most information about them comes from images drawn by Spanish Andes Mountains Very difficult place to live Along the western part of South America from north to south 39 Average elevation over 10000 feet above sea level Highest point about 22000 feet above sea level CUZCO ValleY highland valley in the Andes that is the center of Inca civilization 39 Most crops could be grown here but nowhere else 39 Incas and other ethnic groups lived here as early as 1200 Ayn social unit based on common descent basic social unitbuilding block 39 Communities in the mountains are small agricultural villages with limited crops and animals 39 People view themselves as being from common descent descended from a deity 39 Communal communities that worked together for everything called reciprocity 39 Reciprocity idea of give and take By 1300s into 1400s con ict over resources population grows so much that there is a ght for agricultural land 39 1400s Incas in Cuzco begin to expand their territory to make room for population growth 39 1430s Viracocha leading the Incas Ch3111031 rival group to Inca also wanting to expand in Cuzco Valley 39 As Viracocha got older they attacked Cuzco in 1430s 39 Viracocha ed to a hidden mountain with his favorite son to escape the battle and left Cuzco unprotected CUSi YuPanCIUi also known as Pachacutec founder of Inca Empire When father Viracocha ed he led the Incas in defense against the Chanca 39 quotSunquot deity was said to have protected Cuzco in the battle 39 Used wealth gained from Chanca defeat to bribe other communities in the valley to follow him made very clear choices 39 Pachacutec translates to quotcataclysmquot he changed his name when he began gaining control to symbolize the Inca Empire39s rise 39 Ruled from 14381471 39 Used violence and Inca military to conquer new people 39 During his reign the Inca Empire reached 600 miles from north to south in the Andes 39 Built clay small scale models of what Cuzco is imagined to become It had huge open spaces and a temple called Coricancha CoricanCha temple devoted to sun deity 39 Golden ceiling Tupac Yupanqui ruled 1471 1493 39 Son of Pachacutec who took over and led the Inca Empire when his father died 39 Expanded empire 2000 miles north to south in the Andes 39 Controlled about 13 of South America Huayna Capac ruled 14931527 During his reign the Incas conquer the entire Andes Mountains and exhaust their resources 39 Inca Empire stretches from 2666 miles north to south with 915 million people 39 Used intimidation and reciprocity to conquer other civilizations saw this control of labor rather than just goods 39 Attempted to explore the Amazon rainforest but it was difficult to adapt so they stuck to the mountains 39 Conquered by the Spanish in 1527 had two sons at the time Building the Inca Empire 39 Built a network of roads Chasquis were relay runners who used these roads to carry news 1000020000 miles of crisscrossing roads most roads traveled north to south 39 Bride exchange give or take women from foreign parts of empire to cement political ties 39 Mita labor draft serve in military public work project building attending to Inca rulerwomen were often used as attendants etc 39 Used humiliation to conquer others Poured beer from corn over one39s head Forced defeated army generals to wear women39s clothing red dresses with tassels and fringe and be called rude names as singing war songs 39 Conquered people were forced to use the Inca39s language Quechua 39 Ancestor worship Spread Sun Cult Inca King Sun Inca Queen moon 39 Mummies important people emperors and Inca rulers were mummified by freezedrying bodily remains priests conducted ceremonies for these mummifiedpreserved remains and buried bodies with their wealth Due to burial of wealth Inca Empire had to be expanded to gain new wealth Resistance to Inca conquest 39 Incas kill and destroy 39 quotLoyalquot role models 39 Young men were married to Incan women and converted to Incan ways RUIerS With muuiple WiVes had difficulties choosing which firstborn son would be next in line for the throne Wednesday 10715 MILITARY CONQUEST OF THE AZTECS Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire A few 100 Spanish vs millions of savage Aztec 14943 Treaty 0f TordeSillaS you can Claim territory as long as you Christianize it Reconquista reconquest Hem n Cort s conquistador led conquests to Asia and Aztecs Came to Americas in 1504 Lived in a poor region of Spain 39 Served as a secretary to the governor of Cuba Diego de Vel squez Governor of Cuba reported directly back to Spain 1519 led conquest of Empire spoken of past Cuba 39 Spring of 1519 heads to Mexico from Cuba April 1519 Spanish conquistadores were met by Totonacs Totonacs local native group on eastern coast of Mexico under Aztec control Conquistadores conquerors 39 Loved the Totonacs and decided to quotdivide and conquerquot individual villages of the Aztec Empire human sacrifice worried him 39 Some Spanish were loyal to Cort s and others were loyal to Governor of Cuba Punished leaders cut off feet who were loyal to governor and hid their boats Charismatic and resourceful MOCtezumaAZteC Emperor in AprilJune 1519 along the east coast of Mexico 39 Sent people to the coast to draw pictures of the new Spanish arrivals 39 Gave gifts gold to the Spanish and sent 1000 people to help carry Spanish luggage 39 Sent Spanish food to impress them and show his superiority 39 Told Cort s to stay away from Tenochtitl n 39 Tenochtitlan Aztec capital presentday Mexico City 39 Aztecs withdraw support after telling Cort s39s men to stay away Spanish expected ambush 39 Cort s created an alliance with the Totonacs Friday 10915 AZTEC CONQUEST continued Veracruz settlement founded by Cort s 39 Cut the governor of Cuba out of this information 39 Reported directly to King Charles V of Spain and promised him 20 of his profits Europe was split between Protestants and Catholics at this time so King Charles V just wanted the money to pay for soldiers to fight the Protestants 39 It would take around 1 year for the news to get to Spain and then receive a response Tlaxcala citystate that was rival of Tenochti n Bafore Spaniards 530th Tenochtitl n they got into battles with other native groups such as the Tlaxcalans the Spaniards ended up forming an alliance with the Tlaxcalans because both groups wanted the Aztecs to fall NOVGmber 15193 Spaniards reaCh Tenochtitl n and are awed by the complexity of the city 39 Moctezuma allows the Spanish soldiers to enter the city and give them food and shelter 39 Moctezuma and Cort s became friends by winter 15191520 and they share their ideas of human sacrifice and Catholicism Spring 1520 about 1000 Cuban soldiers appear to arrest Cort s but Cort s got word of the coastal arrival before they found him 39 He headed to meet up with the soldiers and left his own soldiers in Tenochtitl n 39 Bribed the new arrivals to sabotage weapons and then ambushed the rest of arrivals 39 When Cort s returned to Tenochtitl n no one came to greet him the Spaniards were trapped by Aztec39s and Moctezuma is dead Late July 1530 Spaniards plan their escape in the rain and sneak out at night with their wealth horses and allies 39 Before they get across the bridge the Aztecs realize What39s happening and begin removing pieces of the bridge 39 Many Spaniards are killed and this night becomes known as Noche Triste Fall of the Aztec Empire 39 Small pox One soldier Who came to arrest Cort s carried small pox into Tenochtitl n 39 Break rules Cort s and Spaniards want to conquer the empire and claim it for Spain 39 75000 native allies helped the Spaniards in the final siege Tenochtitl n falls in August MILITARY CONQUEST OF THE INCAS Peru is the center of the Inca Empire 15273 Huayna Capac Inca Emperor died of small pox before the Spaniards got there This sent the Incan people into a ciVil war Sons Huascar south and Atahualpa north were halfbrothers both sons of Huayna Capac Who began to fight over the throne and forced the Inca Empire to be split in half Atahualpa captured Huascar in Cuzco and humiliated him publicly before returning to the north 1530s Atahualpa is in control of the Incas FranCiSCO Pizarm illiterate With illegitimate brothers nicknamed Spanish Mafiastyle group 39 Led conquest of the Incas 39 Spent time in Panama 39 Made strategic alliances and fought many groups of Incas 39 Heard rumors of a great quotEmpire to the Southquot and began planning to explore the south coast of Africa after the conquer of the Aztecs 39 1520s went back to Spain to meet with representatives of King Charles Pizarro was told whatever he conquered would belong to him as long as he gave 20 of his wealth to the king 39 Good friend Diego de Almagro guided him when he asked for ideas January 1531 left Panama in eets of ships with 180 men and 37 horses to head to the coast of South America presentday Peru 1532 Spanish forces head to the mountains to meet with Atahualpa in the northern part of the empire Atahualpa has 100000 soldiers in his command fancy spalike baths and women 39 Sent representatives to meet the Spaniards but the Spanish said they39d rather come to the mountains to meet with him 39 Incas gave the Spaniards food drinks shelter and people to guide them through the Andes because Atahualpa underestimated them 39 November 1532 Spaniards arrived at Caj amarca and find no one there the city was surrounded by walls and had one entranceexit 39 November 16 1532 Atahualpa finally agreed to meet with Pizarro and brought all the Incan nobles not dressed for war They are greeted With a priest who read a proclamation telling Atahualpa to become a Christian or be thrown into a just war Idea of quotjust warquot forfeit human rights When Spaniards offer a bible to Atahualpa he refuses the offer so the Spaniards attack The walls of the city collapse and about 23000 Incas were kined not a sing1e Spaniard died and they held Atahualpa captive and humiliated him
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