Week 6 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Week 6 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
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depth algae that absorbs a lot of blue will tend to be deeper Light and Depth Distribution of different algae species are determined by light levels Algae does not usually go below 30 meters At lower light levels pigment concentration increases they get more in their cells to be generating energy because there is less light Species at lower Marine Vascular Plants Kingdom plantae related to terrestrial plants all vascular evolve on land and then move into marine habitats Class angiospermae owering plants that you see on land Coastal plants Intertidal plants Seagrasses Coastal Plants Palm Trees Original habitat in IndoMalayan region Widespread today by humans in tropical and subtropical coastal regions Fibrous oating seeds allow for dispersal on the open ocean they can t thrive without marine environment and marine dispersal Intertidal Plants Salt marsh grasses Major species in genus Spartina Multiple species of Spartina Adaptations to wide range of salinity and waterlogged peat sediment Most terrestrial plants have a limited range of salinity adaptation They have true roots which usually can t happen in a waterlogged area Spartina alterni ora has become an invasive species in some areas Spread into regions where it can outcompete other native species They can survive because of salt exclusion in the roots and special tissue that sheds excess salt Extreme conditions can be completely dry during low tide and completely immersed during high tide Mangroves Mainly tropical species found in coastal waters Southem US near Australia Indonesia Mangrove adaptations Adaptations to shed excess salt exchange gases and remain supported in wet environments They excrete salt through their leaves salt crystals form They can exchange gases through roots at low tide and their stems and leaves at high tide Trachaeonhvta Sea Grasses Not true grasses Descended from terrestrial plants Evolved multiple times 5 familes 52 species Adapted to match environmental salinity levels If there is a change in salinity there will be a problem Help clean the water column provide refuge for animals and food for marine animals and birds They look like seaweed but they are more like terrestrial plants have a terrestrial plant like structure Sea Grass Reproduction They are owering plants dioecious separate male and female plants reduced owers males release pollen into the water many more female than male plants Very different than most of the algae Primary conservation issue with marine plants Humans cause these problems Coastal run off Pollution Reduced light levels Ocean acidification Coraline red algae Habitat destruction How does energy move through ecosystems Energy Pyramid Starts with primary producers energy is lost at each level because of waste levels You need 1000 lbs of primary producers to make 100 pounds of first order consumers 10715 Plankton Plankton Are Important They make up the base of the marine food chains on the planet They are responsible for 95 of marine primary productivity They are the dominant autotrophs in the ocean They take a lot of the carbon dioxide that we generate 50 of the world s oxygen is produced by phytoplankton What are Plankton They have common ancestors from bacteria archea and eukarya domains Plankton Classified by habitat and mobility where they are and how fast they can move Small organisms in the ocean Unable to swim against current Some able to swim weakly or adjust their buoyancy They can travel long distances in the ocean by moving up and down water columns and moving into different waters They can be very diverse in their appearances They can be up to 5000 cm in length most are very smallmicroscopic Biggest Plankton Siphonophore Cnidarian related to jellyfish Clonal organism Common species Portuguese Man O War Physalia physalis Up to 50m including the tentacles Plankton Separated into categories based on size Femtoplankton viruses produce most of the DOM in the ocean Picoplankton archaea and bacteria Nanoplankton start of phytoplankton Microplanton most of rest of phytoplankton start of zooplankton Autotronhic vs Heterotrophic Autotrophs Producers in the food chain Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Mixotrophs MiX of autotrophs and heterotrophs they do both They can do photosynthesis but they also can ingest smaller organisms Heterotrophs Consumers in the food chain Feed on organic matter from autotrophs or other heterotrophs Two Major Divisions of Plankton Phytoplankton Autotrophs anything that can generate its own food Zooplankton Heterotrophs more like animals Consuming matter produced by phytoplankton and other zooplankton Phytoplankton vs Zooplankton Biomass phytoplankton zooplankton in some regions You would never see this in terrestrial environments Plankton are the foundation of marine food webs A food web is a diagram showing the connection of different organisms who eat each other All organisms are tied to phytoplankton Terrestrial vs Marine primary productivity look at the total terrestrial land vs ocean net primary productivity is higher on land than it is in ocean Plants are really important on average terrestrial ecosystems are more productive than marine ecosystems single most productive habitat by area are coastal marine habitats and the single most productive habitat due to its large size is the open ocean Importance of Marine Habitats Single most productive habitat by area are coastal marine habitats and the single most productive habitat due to its large size is the open ocean Epipelagic Biology Plankton Old method of study uses plankton nets early 1800s Method misses many types of plankton New techniques have revolutionized understanding of epipelagic and especially plankton biology New Methods for Sampling MOCHNESS a multiple openingclosing net and environmental sensing system Video Plankton Recorder underwater video microscope First Global Atlas of Marine Plankton Published in July 2013 Marine ecosystem biomass data MAREDAT thtoplanton autotrophs Cyanobacteria Diatoms Dino agellates Coccolithophores Cyanobacteria The tiny architects of the earth s atmosphere Called bluegreen algae but are bacteria not plants Precursor to chloroplasts in al other plants on land and in the water Prochlorococcus responsible for 50 of oxygen production on earth and was only discovered in 1986 They are very abundant Dino agellates Dinowhirling Flagellum whip Both marine and freshwater species can be autotrophic or mixotrophic about 50 are mixotrophic Dominant phytoplankton at low latitudes Some species are responsible for red tide due to potentially harmful toxins Diatoms Most common type of phytoplankton in high latitude nutrient rich waters silica cell walls which are not calcium carbonate found everywhere land ocean bogs feathers of diving birds About 1000 very diverse forms in shapes in sizes Coccolithophores Major phytoplankton in temperate subtropical and tropical oceans Armorlike plates of calcium carbonate scales called Coccoliths major focus of concern with ocean acidification Do not do well with ocean acidification Their shells dissolve Measuring Phytoplankton from space Satellites used to measure phytoplankton blooms advances in technology over 25 years From detection to quantified values can detect color and uorescence Global distribution of phytoplankton productivity There are increased areas of productivities all over the world due to upwelling areas west coast of US Africa South America increasing levels of chlorophyll Seasonal Changes in Phytoplankton Different changes as the seasons weather changes Zooplankton gheterotrophs 2 Foraminifera Radiolaria Copepods Jellyfish Fish larvae Meroplankton planktonic larval stages of nonplanktonic organisms Especially abundant in neritic coastal waters eX crab larva reef fish larva Holoplankton spends entire life as plankton eX euphauasiid copepod amphipod Why Copepods are king of the plankton Kopeoar podosfoot Most diverse habitats marine freshwater terrestrial polar to hydrothermal vents Most numerous multi cellular animals in water Dominant consumer of phytoplankton Major source of food for filter feeding organisms Zooplankton other crustaceans 2 Krill euphausids Form huge dense swarms in cold oceanic waters Most common in Antartica Can be important food for large organisms whales Decapods Shrimp crab and lobster larvae or nauplii Omnivorous will eat phytoplankton and zooplankton are meroplankton NonCrustacean Zooplankton Salps planktonic tunicates that filterfeed phytoplankton Larvaceans oat inside a mucus bell which draws water in and filtercatches phytoplankton Chaetognaths arrow worms swimming predators mainly on copepods How do plankton stay near the surface Body shapes to resist sinking Important for photosynthetic organisms need to stay in sunlight Buoyancy adjustment Gas filled sacs Oil droplets Daily vertical migration of zooplankton Many planktonic species migrate vertically in the water column Up to 800 m in a single day equivalent to humans traveling 50 miles During the day passively sink At night actively swim upward Why do they migrate Why does zooplankton migrate Follow food avoid predation Avoid very strong light energy conservation possibly all of the above Plastics and Zooplankton Planlltton can eat microscopic plastic Microbeads Broken down piece of larger plastic Common in many planktonic and fish species Unclear What the long term effects Will be 11 the ecosystem probably not good