HIST 1010, Week 5 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 5 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 401 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 5 September 15 2015 Development of Buddhism and the Rise of the Silk Road 9152015 I Brahminism and Population Growth South Asia c 1200500 BCE a Technology Population Growth and Urbanization b The Development of Brahminism and the Evolution of Social Hierarchy II Development and Appeal of Buddhism a Theology of the Buddha b Buddhism and the Mauyran Empire III The Development of the Silk Road Today s Questions 0 v What was the connection between Brahmin spiritual beliefs and social hierarchy How did the two sets of ideas interact with and reinforce one another 3 What were some of the key teachings of the Buddha Why did his theology appeal to different groups of South Asian men and women What was changing structurally within society to make it so appealing South Asia 0 Around about 1200 BCE over many centuries people start filling in the Ganges River Valley in the Indian subcontinent 0 New technology iron tools emerged for agricultural purposes 0 Evidence shows that it was a combination of iron axes and burning that cleared out the River Valley for agricultural o The population of South Asia starts to increase very rapidly 0 Lead to more complex and urban societies 0 Around 800 BCE there is evidence of small cities in the Ganges River Valley I Almost 2000 years since there were large cities in this place 0 Enclosed with defensive walls and some become the centers of small monarchies o Diverse economic activity 0 Political and social elite emerges 0 Terms Brahminism 0 Four categories under varna Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya and Shudra o Dharma the moral laws of the universe Buddhist dharma just one version of this 0 Spiritual fulfillment came through following the rules of the universe Dharma o How one was following dharma determined how many times one would be reincarnated and whether the next life would be better or worse 0 Wide array of devotional practices of daily rituals animal sacrifices etc that helped people follow the rules 0 Brahmin performed these you had to attend to follow dharma Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week5 0 As the centuries passed many Brahmins especially in the cities taught the only way to really follow dharma was through strict attention to religious practice and accepting rules governed by society without any question 0 Idea of the four categories held that everybody had a place in society social hierarchy First two are very small Kshatriya Political and military leaders aristocracy Most fall into one of the bottom two categories Vaishya most of the people living in cities farmers merchants artisans traders etc Shudra Laborers who worked for other people and those who served anyone in the other three categories 0 Eventually a fifth category emerges as well quotThe Untouchables I Involved work that was considered dirty 0 Public cleaning trash dead bodies etc 0 Membership in your category was ordained by the gods and determined at birth I Born into a spot in society and cannot move up or down in spot during lifetime only through reincarnation o Talked about social levels as relative labels of purityimpurity I Brahmins considered quotmost clean in body and spirit Although you couldn t move socially you could become temporarily unclean I Really rigid segregation of society 0 No contact with anyone who is in any other category than yours 0 Brahmins are becoming increasingly focused on fulfilling their own interpretations of rituals o Brahmins are saying the Kshatriya are ordained by god to be the leaders and Kshatriya said to listen to the Brahmins religiously a symbiotic relationship 0 Not addressing the spiritual needs of the bottom two classes 0 quotYour place in the society is determined by the gods but be good and you will be reincarnated into a better class 0 Challenges emerge 0 Development of Buddhism 0 The Buddha was alive at exactly the same time as Confucius contemporaries a little older than Socrates Taught that observance of rituals was not enough to give one a satisfying life The world was a place of pain and distress mostly caused by human desire for temporary things 0 To have a happy life one had to eliminate desire I Laid out in the Four Noble Truths o Earthly life is unfulfilling 0 Human suffering is a result of cravings and desires for earthly things 0 The way out of suffering is the elimination of desire 0 Only by following the Eightfold Path can one eliminate desire and live a happy life and achieve nirvana contentment I Particularly appealing to those not in elite categories 00000 O Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week5 Especially to third tier who is doing pretty well financially but is shut out of any sort of leadership role or elite society because of its rank I Continuities with Brahmin teachings Believes in reincarnation Does not deny that you are born into your ranking I Confucius taught that having a hierarchy was a very good thing everyone needs to embrace their role and do the best they can 0 About a century after the Buddha s teaching violence is spurred in part by Alexander the Great 0 Hellenistic cities sprung up on the edges of the Indus River Valley 0 Alexander s presence destabilizes the region politically I Chandragupta is able to consolidate the northern stretch of the subcontinent into his empire I His grandson Ashoka continues to add onto the kingdom and almost rules the entire Indian subcontinent When Ashoka is the emperor Buddhist principles start to have an influence on the governing style for the first time 0 According to stories he was pretty brutal when he first became emperor but a few years into his reign he is stunned by the body count of his dead soldiers and is so appalled by the loss of life that he renounces violence and instead commits himself to governing the empire using the Buddhist principles of nonviolence o Formulates the dhamma of Ashoka I Nonviolence and respect for all living things I Obedience to the quotnatural order of things I Respect and tolerance for other religious codes and practices Tries to build a united kingdom Tolerated multiculturalism I Mauryan Empire doesn t really last after Ashoka s death Internal dissent grows with the new rulers o The Development of the Silk Road 0 A lot of roads of trade connecting the eastern twothirds of AfroEurasia together 0 Stopping at caravan towns run by pastoral nomads I Starts to tie these folks into everything tradewise more thoroughly 0 Trade facilitates cultural exchange I Spread of Buddhism out of South Asia I Technological innovations emerge City called Petra present day Jordan Buildings packed into side of rocks To make Petra work the entire town is surrounded by irrigation canalstrenches Phenomenal engineering feat Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 5 September 17 2015 Exam 1 was taken on this day so don t freak out No notes
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