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Chapter 5 Lecture Notes

by: Joanna Seivard

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4

Chapter 5 Lecture Notes ASTR 1001

Joanna Seivard
GWU
GPA 3.88
Stars, Planets, and Life in the Universe
Dhuga, K

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Here are my notes from the Astronomy chapter 5 lecture.
COURSE
Stars, Planets, and Life in the Universe
PROF.
Dhuga, K
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joanna Seivard on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dhuga, K in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Stars, Planets, and Life in the Universe in Astronomy at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
Basic Energy Temperature Scales both the centigrade and the Fahrenheit scales are based on the properties of a particular substance ie water 0 The absolute scale is based on a basic property of matter ie internal motion of the atoms Temperature vs Heat 0 Temp is the average kinetic energy 0 Heat thermal energy is the tota kinetic energy Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is the energy which an object stores due to its ability to fall Depends on o The object39s mass m o The strength of gravity g o The distance which it falls h 0 PE mgh 0 Energy is stored in matter itself 0 This massenergy is what would be released if an amount of mass m were converted into energy 0 E mc2 o c 3E8 ms is the speed of light m is in kg E is in Joules Conservation of Energy 0 Energy can be neither created nor destroyed lt merely changes its form or is exchanged between objects 0 This principle or law is fundamental to science 0 The total energy content of the universe was determined in the Big Bang and remains the same today The Material World 0 What is the basic structure of an atom 0 Schematic two main components nucleus majority of matter protons amp neutrons and electron orbit 0 Rules about how much charge the atom can have Distinguish between atomic number and atomic mass number 0 How do phases of matter change with increasing temperature Fundamental Forces amp Scales o Gravitational in nite range weakest force but dominates larger scales 0 Electromagnetic technically in nite range but easily shielded holds atoms together 0 Nuclear strong strongest force very short range 10E15 m holds nuclei together 0 Nuclear weak relatively weak range 10E15 m dominates certain nuclear reactions involving radioactive decay Atomic number number of protons Atomic mass number of protons number of neutrons o What happens if an electron is missing 0 With sufficient energy input an atom can lose electrons and become fully or partially ionized Phases of matter 0 Solid liquid gas plasma 0 Depend on how tightly bound the atoms andor molecules are 0 As temperature increases these bonds are loosened andor broken 0 Different stars have different surface temperature Electron orbits o Electrons can gain or lose energy while they orbit the nucleus 0 When electrons have the lowest energy possible we say the atom is in the ground state 0 When electrons have more energy then this we say the atom is in an excited state 0 When electrons gain enough energy to escape the nucleus we say the atom is ionized Electron energy levels 0 Electrons cannot have just any energy while orbiting the nucleus 0 Only certain energy values are allowed 0 Electrons may only gain or lose certain speci c amounts of energy 0 Each element atom and ion has its own distinctive set or pattern of energy levels 0 Hydrogen has different energy levels Stars have slightly different glowscolors indicating different energy levels Light 0 Newton showed white light mixture of different colors proposed corpuscular theory of light 0 In 1676 Romer measured speed of light 300000 kms o Propagation of light the intensity of light decreases as the inverse square of the distance increases 0 Waves or particles 0 Newton proposed light to be made of small particles In 1678 Huygens proposed wave theory of light In 1801 Young demonstrated wavelike properties of light via doubleslit experiment 0 Light exhibits interference and diffraction phenomenon intrinsic properties of waves 0 Waves Particle possess mass transfer energy via collision Wave a mechanism for the transfer of energy from place to place without physical movement of matter from location to location 0 Energy and info transfer via repeating disturbance or pattern 0 Ex water waves sound waves medium mechanical waves 0 What about medium of propagation for light 0 Wave properties Wave period the time for the pattern to repeat in seconds Wavelength the length of one cycle of pattern in meters Frequency number of cycles in unit time o 1period in HZ Amplitude maximum deviation of pattern from the undisturbed state It is a measure of intensity of radiation Wave speed wavelength x frequency a Intrinsic to all waves diffraction spreading and interference recombination Electromagnetic Radiation o Maxwell provided a uni ed description of electric and magnetic phenomena 0 He predicted the existence of EM waves that travel at 3E8 ms 0 Production 0 Interaction and oscillation of charges 0 charge being a fundamental property of matter 0 Propagation Travels as a wave no medium needed maximum speed in vacuum 0 Field components 0 Electric and magnetic Components at 90 degrees with regards to each other 0 Travel as one wave Spectra 0 Continuous radiation emitted at all wavelengths ie blackbody spectrum an object that absorbs a radiation falling on it amp emits radiation at all wavelengths Has dark or absorption lines 0 Absorption takes place in the outer cooer regions of the photosphere of the Sun 0 Discrete radiation at particular wavelengths only 0 Measurements spectroscope or spectrometer These devices aid in the collection and analysis of radiation Temperature o A matter radiates energy amount depends on temperature 0 Matter composed of atoms and subatomic particles 0 Most have mass and charge Continuously in motion 0 Temp is a measure of the agitation caused by the motion and inter coisions of the constituent particles of a system 0 Also known as thermal energy or heat of a system 0 The greater the motion the greater intrinsic energy in the system greater energy radiated 0 Scale Fahrenheit F and Centigrade C are calibrated by properties of water Water freezes at 0 C 32 F Water bois at 100 C 212 F 0 Absolute scae K for Kelvin is calibrated by intrinsic property of all matter ie cessation of all atomic motion Absolute zero occurs at about 273 C Conversions K C 273 Special cases Room temperature 300 K Surface of sun 5800 K

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