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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Schmelter on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 20B - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Dunkin,R.C. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
BIO 20B Kate is my TA Likes abalone Went to oberlin Oh Originally from florida West nile Squirels Mass specific metabolic rate is energy consumption per time per kg Whole Body metabolic rate is energy consumption per time Sole magnitude Homeostasis is energy consumptive so some organisms change their set point Bioenergetics is the study of energy through organisms populations etc Endotherm lnside heat generates our own heat warm blooded high energy overhead Ectotherms out heat rely on outside environment to get heat Basal metabolic rate is used to measure minimum maintanence energy cost Positive relationship between ectotherm metabolic rate and environmental temp TNZ Thermo neutral zone graph range of environmental temperatures between which the metabolism is stable Lower critical Temp and upper critical temp are the temperatures in which one must start exerting energy to maintain core body temperture Takes energy then you re cold and when you re too hot 10515 Vitamins and minerals are essential ie Can t biosynthesize Minerals structural support ions for cellular function Vitamins often coenzymes for metabolism and biosynthesis WAter and fat folic acid vit C Bsoluble vit A D diseases from lack of vitamins include scurvy from lack of C Pellagra lack of B3 niacin Rickets Lack of vit D Spina Bifita due to lack of Folic Acid CALORIC INTAKE Hormone is a chemical that helps regulate production of cells elsewhere Adipose cells are fat cells which are connective tissue Leptin is produced by adipose cells in proportion to fat mass More fat more leptin Leptin acts on receptors in hypothalamus to reduce appetite and upsquot metabolic rate Low leptin leads to low metabolic rate to decrease energy outflow This study links the mutation found in mice with low leptin levels causes them to think they are underfat and overconsume and become obese Leptin vs bodyfat Proportional Food Processing Ingestion eat Mechanical breakdown ie teeth Chemical Breakdown ie Saliva moisen and lubricates food before swallowing H20 and glycoproteins form mucus dissolves food particlestaste Kills ingested bacteria Digestion initiated Amylase cleaves starch into glucose monomers and polymers 4Cgram Lipase lipid triglyceride into fatty acid and monoglycerides 9Cgram Pharynx opens trachea and esophagus Esophagus conducts food from pharynx to stomach via peristalsis no absorption yet Digestion is breakdown of food to chemical monomers occurs outside the cells extracellular Gastrovascular Cavities connects outside via single opening Tubular guts opening at each end ie Mouth and anus separate Carbohydrate Lipid Proteins Polymer Polysaccharides Triglycerides Polypeptides Monomer Monosaccharides Fatty Acids Amino Acids Enzymatic Hydrolysis breaking down macromolecules into monomers by adding H20 Digestive enzymes include Protease breaks down Amino Acids Carbohydrase Pep dase Lipase Nulecease Absorption nutrient uptake Elimination passage of undigested materials out of digestive compartment Stomach Stores food and partially digests proteins Gastric pits in stomach lined with 3 secretory cells Chief cells Pepsinogen inactive form of pepsin which breaks down proteins Parietal cells Hydrochloric Acid kills microbes dissolves particulate matter Goblet Cells Mucus secreting cells Food reduced to chyme Digestive enzyme produced in inactive form zymogens Cannot act of cels that produce needs secondary activator HCl activates Pepsinogen into Pepsin Pepsin also activates Pepsinogen Called Autocatalysis Small intestine Liver pancreas 1 food enters the Duodenum of small intestine 2 Here chyme is mixed with a Bileemulsifies fats liver made aids in digesting lipids b proteasesie trypsin from pancreas c bicarbonate COS buggers acidic chyme from pancreas Pancreas secretes enzymes as zymogens Trypsinogen activated by enterokinesis in duodenum Trypsin activates other zymogens Digestion of fats fats insoluble in water bile salts have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends Hydrophobic end binds gat and creates smaller fat droplets Micelles increase surface area of fats for from monoglycerides and bile salts Forms in gut Lipase can then digest fats FAs and monoglycerides enter epithelial cells of small intestine ER reforms FA monoglycerides into triglycerides and packages them into Chylomicrons in epithelial cells to by exocytosis and into lymphatic systems distributed in blood for breakdown elsewhere Small Intestine Duodenum initial section most digestion occurs here Jejunum lleum carries out most absorbtion Nutrients absorbed by epithelial cells in 3 ways Passive diffusion eg H20 solvent drag Active transport requires atp eg Na and other ions facilitated diffusioin eg fructose Large intestion and colon Collects remaining contents of small intestines Absorbs remaining H20 And ions and storesoncentrates fecal matter Aquaporins Transmembrane H20 channels Bacterial flora help break down undigested organics and produce vitamins Regulating Digestion Gastrin Released by stomach into blood stimulates secretion of HCI and pepsin and increased motility of stomach Secretin in duodenum causes pancreas to secrete digestive juices Cholecystokinin in small intestine causes gallbladder to release bile stimulates pancreas slows stomach Blood sugar and Diabetes Glucose level rises and pancreas secretes insulin into the blood The job of Insulin is to enhance transport of glucose into all cells I stimulates liver and muscle to store glucose as glycogen a blood glucose drops pancreas releases glucagon which opposes insulin Type 1 is where your body doesn t produce enough insulin Type 2 is where your body doesn t produce enough insulin or glucose channels don t respond to insulin n uncontrolled diabetes sugar can crystallize in your blood which can restrict circulation and especially hurt the extremities of the feet and eyes Problem Waterloss solution kidneys concentrate urine osmolality Oily skin helps decrease body loss Animals must excrete N waste after the nitrogen is broken down from proteins and nucleic acids Ammonia Some fish and marine invertebrates excrete directly in order to intake Na an ponen Urea is less toxic than ammonia Uric acid is much less toxic than NH3 and better at saving water Insoluble in water and excreted as a paste eg Insects snails birds and reptiles Filtration selectively permeableextracellular fluid filtered to get rid of cells and large molecules FiltrateThe fluid that passed through the filter Secretion specialized cells secrete particular molecules into the filtrate depending on purpose REabsorption molecules and or ions enter back into circulation dep on need KIDNEYS Filtration organ Renal Cortexoutermost margin Renal Medullamiddle Vasa rectavascular net that surrounds the nephron Peritubular capilaries capillaries that are aroundperi the top of the nephron Nephron Bowman s capsulefiltration When blood pressure higher more blood goes through porous filters and filters more filtrate out Large molecules trapped and concentrated Glomerulus fits in which filters out fluid and ions Proximal and Distal Tubules reabsorption Loop of Henle Diffusion and osmosis Reabsorption and secretion as well transport epithelia line the nephron designed to get rid of salt Two types of nephrons Cortical nephrons are confined to the cortex no loop of henle Juxtamedullary nephrons have loop of Henle that extends in the medulla This is the adaptation that allows mammals and birds to produce hyperosmotic urine compared to body fluids Milliosmoles Renal Pelvisinner core of kidney