1305 General Biology- Week 7 Notes
1305 General Biology- Week 7 Notes General Biology 1305
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mercedes Taylor on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Biology 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Jennifer Apodaca in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
1305 General Biology Jennifer Apodaca Week 7 Notes 100515 100715 Inside of the Cell Chapter 4 l macoverv of Cells A Robert Hocke mid1600 s 1 Coined the term cell 2 observed sliver of cork 3 saw row of empty boxes B The Cell Theory 7 things 1 All known living things are made up of one or more cells 2 Cells arise from preexisting cells by division 3 The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms 4 The activity of an organism depends on the total of independent cells 5 Energy flow metabolism and biochemistry occurs within the cell 6 Cells contain hereditary information DNA which is passed from cell to cell during cell division 7 All cells are basically the same in chemical composition in organisms of similar species C The Origin of cells 1 Stage 1 Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules such as proteins amino acids and nucleotides 2 Stage 2 joining of small molecules monomers into large molecules 3 Stage 3 Origin of selfreplication molecules that eventually made inheritance possible 4 Stage 4 packaging these molecules into precells droplets of molecules with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry D Grouping Cells 1 Bases on gross morphology there are 2 broad groups of life a Prokaryotes lack a membrane bound nucleus b Eukaryotes have such a nucleus 2 According to Phylogeny or evolutionary history there are 3 domains a Bacteria gt Prokaryote b Archaea gt c Eukarya gt Eukaryotes Structure and Function at the WholeCell Level A An organism39s membrane and its enzymes correlate with its function Cells are dynamic living things that have a interacting parts and b contain constantly moving molecules B Cell structure correlates with cell function a type b size c number of organelles Prokaryotic Cells A Simple cell structure a Lack a membrane enclosed nucleus b 2 categories i Bateria abundant most not harmful ii Archaea less common often found in extreme environments c Bacteria and Archaea can live in variety of environments because of their diversity morphology and metabolism B Structural Overview a recent advances in microscopy reveal complexities in prokaryotic structure b Archaeal structure is relatively poorly understood c bacterial cell can vary greatly in size and shape but most bacteria contain several structural similarities i Plasma Membrane ii a single chromosome iii Ribosomes which synthesize proteins iv Stiff cell wall C Bacteria a Morphology cell shape b Common bacterial cell shapes include i Sphere coccus in plates blocks or clusters ii Rod bacillus plural bacilli iii Spiral spirillum plural spirilla iv Rods and spiral shapes may form chains or clusters v Other bacterial shapes include filaments and branched filaments D Prokaryotic Cell Genetic Information a Most prokaryotic species have one supercoiled circular chromosome found in the nucleoid of the cell The chromosome contains long strands of DNA and few supportive proteins b In addition to large chromosomes many bacteria contain plasmids which are small supercoiled circular DNA molecules i Plasmids usually contain genes that help the cell adapt to unusual environmental conditions c DNA is circular Haploid i More efficient grows quicker ii Plasmids extra circular DNA iii Antibiotic resistance ix mutation allows adaption to environment quicker IV Prokarvotic Cell Internal Structure A In addition to the nucleoid chromosome and plasmids other structures are contained within the in Cytoplasm B All prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes consisting of RNA molecules and protein for protein synthesis C Many prokaryotes have internal photosynthetic membranes D Some prokaryotes have membrane enclosed organelles or cell inclusion E Inside of many prokaryotic cells is supported by a cytoskeleton of long thin protein filaments V Cell Inclusion and Microcompartments A Cell inclusions are often present in bacterial cells and may function as energy reserves andor carbon reservoirs or have special functions a storing calcium ions or other key molecules b holding crystals of the mineral magnetite function like compass needle to help cells sense a magnetic field c organizing enzymes responsible for synthesizing complex carbon compounds from carbon dioxide d Sequestering enzymes B Bacterial Microcompartments a recently internal compartments in many bacterial species were discovered i these compartments are known as Bacterial Microcompartments MOP are organelles consisting of protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins Organelles in eukaryotes are different and more common b Each type of bacterial microcompartments is found in certain species c bacterial microcompartments perform many of tasks Vl Prokaryotic Cells External Structure A Most prokaryotes have a cell wall which forms a protective exoskeleton B Bacterial and Archaeal cell walls a composed of tough fibrous layer b surrounds the plasma membrane C Many species have an additional layer a outside cell wall b composed of glycolipids D Glycocalyx Capsule traps water protection E Appendages pili attachment and flagella locomotion Vll Cell Wall A Most bacteria cell walls contain peptidoglycan which is unique to bacteria B Antibiotics like Penicillin interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis C Eukaryotic cells do not have it thus there is no harm to human cells Vlll Introduction to Eukaryotes A Eukaryotes ranges from microscopic algae to 100 meter tall redwood trees B Many are multicellular others are unicellular C Most eukaryotic cells are larger than most prokaryotic cells 1305 General Biology Jennifer Apodaca Week 7 Notes 100715 Inside the Cell Cont l cterial Appendages and Locomotion A Flagella a Some prokaryotes have tail like flagella that project from the cell surface and spin around for locomotion The base of this structure is embedded in the plasma membrane B Fimbriae singular fimbria a are filamentous or needlelike projections made of protein that extend from the plasma membrane of some bacteria b enable some organisms to attach to other cells or surfaces C Pili a Filamentous protein structure typically longer than fimbriae assists in surface attachment 0 Facilitate genetic exchange between cells conjugation 5 ll Major differences between typical eukaryotes and prokaryotes are Eukaryotic chromosomes are found in the membrane bound nucleus Eukaryotic cells are often much larger Eukaryotic cells contain extensive amounts of internal membrane Eukaryotic cells feature a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton 900 quotI Why are Cell So Small A As cells grow larger metabolic activity and need for resources and rate of waste production increases faster than surface area B Cells have large surface areatovolume ration a some cells increase surface area by folds in the cell membrane C The relative large size of the eukaryote cells make it difficult for molecule to diffuse across entire cell a The problem is partially solved by breaking up the large cell volume into several smaller membrane bound organelles D The compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells offers 2 primary advantages a separation of incompatible chemical reactions b Increasing the efficiency of chemical reactions E Within cells there are 4 major categories that can be used to describe and group cellular components IV Cell Wall Cytosol intracellular fluid ICF or the cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells Endomembrane Organelles composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm with a eukaryotic cell Semiautonomous Organelles organelles that have their own DNA mRNA tRNA ribosomes and they replicate by binary fission ro ther are said to be selfgoverning Cytoskeleton Elements are cellular scaffolding or structure contained within the cytoplasm A Prokaryotes a b Bacterial cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan but contain pseudopeptidoglycan B Eukaryotes a algal cell walls contain either polysaccharides such as cellulose or a variety of other glycoproteins b Plant cell walls contain cellulose and in woody tissue contain xylan and lignin c Fungi includes yeast have a cell wall consisting largely of chitin and other polysaccharides d Oomycetes typically possess cell walls of cellulose and glucans e Diatoms have cell wall composed of biogenic silica Breakdown of Cell Structure Animal l Cytosol A Region of eukaryotic cell that is outside of the cell organelles inside of the plasma membrane B Cytoplasm includes everything inside of the plasma membrane a cytosol b Endomembrane System c Semiautonomous Organelles C Cytosol is part of the cytoplasm that is not held by any of the organelle in the cell D The cytosol is a crowded solution of many different types of molecule that fills much of the volume of cells Hint think of a ball pit visualize yourself in the middle of the cell as a ball pit ll Plasma Membrane Selectively Permeable A Boundary between the cell and the extracellular environment B Func ons a Membrane transport in and out of the cell selectively permeable b Cell signaling using receptors c Cell adhesion Ill The Endomembrane Svstem A The Endomembrane systems consists of a Nuclear Envelope b Endoplasmic Reticulum rough and smooth c GolgiApparatus d Lysosome e Vacuoles f Plasma Membrane B These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles and is the primary system for protein and lipid synthesis C Tiny membrane surrounded vesicles shuttle substance between the various components as well as to the cell membrane D The endoplasmic system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell a Ions ATP amino acids and other small molecules diffuse randomly throughout the cell but the movement of proteins and other large molecules is energy demanding and tightly regulated b Network of membranes enclosing the nucleus ER Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes and Vacuoles and also includes plasma membrane c May be directly connected to each other or pass material via vesicles IV The Nucleus A Structure a surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope b The nucleus has a distinct region called nucleolus B Functions a Information storage and processing b Contains the cell s chromosomes c Ribosomal RNA synthesis rRNA in the nucleolus C In the nucleus DNA is organized into discrete units called chromosomes a Each chromosome is composed of single DNA molecule associated with proteins b The DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together call Chromatin c Chromatin condenses to form discrete chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide V Nucleolus A The nucleolus is located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis B The nucleolus is the nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells C Function a Primary function is to assemble ribosomes is the largest structure in the cell nucleus b Organises regions of chromosomes which harbour the gene for rerRNA are the foundation for the nucleolus c The nucleolus has numerous other functions including assembly of signal recognition particles modifications of transfer RNAs and sensing cellular stress VI Nuclear Envelone A Double membrane structure enclosing nucleus Consists of a lipid bilayer and continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum The inside is linked to fibrous proteins that for a latticelike sheet called the nuclear lamina a Lamina stiffens the membranes structure and maintains its shape b provides attachment points for each chromosome c The envelope contains thousands of opening called Nuclear Pores The provide transport mechanism for moving DNA RNA enzymes and ribosomes They are like passageways and control movement of molecules between nucleus and cytoplasm d Materials within the nucleus are not part of the endomembrane system e The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum B Nuclear envelope developed early in eukaryote evolution a May have arisen from DNA attached to the membrane of an in folded vesicle b Events in the origin of the eukaryotic cell i Origin of a flexible cell surface ii Origin of a cytoskeleton iii Nuclear envelope developed iv Digestive vacuole appears v Acquisition of certain organelles by endosymbiosis C How are molecules imported into the Nucleus a Messenger RNAs mRNA and ribosomes are synthesized in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm Materials such as proteins needed in the nucleus are imported into the nucleus Movement of proteins and other large molecules into and out of the nucleus is an energydemanding process b Proteins destined for the nucleus have a molecular zip code VII Ribosomes A Structure a Nonmembranous meaning they are not considered organelles b Have large and small subunits both containing RNA molecules and proteins B Function a Protein synthesis b Translate the nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA molecule into a polypeptide C Cellular Locations a The nucleolus is located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis b Ribosomes can be attached to the rough ER or free in the cytosol the fluid part of the cytoplasm ln eukaryotes ribosomes are not membrane bound organelles they are free in the cytoplasm attached to the ER or inside mitochondria and chloroplasts c In prokaryotes ribosomes float freely in cytoplasm VIII The End0pasmic Reticulum A Network of membranes that form flattened fluid filled tubules or Cisternae B ER membrane encloses a single compartment called the ER Lumen C Rough ER a studded with ribosomes b involved in protein synthesis and sorting D Smooth ER a Lacks ribosomes b detoxification carbohydrate metabolism calcium balance synthesis and modification of lipids IX Smooth End0pasmic Reticulum A Structure a the smooth ER SER lacks the ribosomes associated with the rough ER B Function a Enzymes within the smooth ER i synthesize fatty acids phospholipids and steroids ii Carbohydrates iii break down poisonous lipids detoxifying drugs and poisons b Reservoir for Ca2 ions c attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins X Rouqh End0pasmic Reticulum A Structure a the rough ER RER is a network of membranebound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes The interior is called the lumen b the rough ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope B Function a several proteins involved in translocations or processing of newly synthesized proteins are enriched in RER b Has bound ribosomes which secrete glycoproteins New proteins are folded and processed in the rough ER lumen d Is a membrane factory for the cell 0 Xl Golgi Apparatus A Structure a formed by a series of stacked flat membrane sacs called Cisternae and small membraneenclosed vesicles B Function concentrates packages and sorts proteins a The Golgi Apparatus receives proteins synthesized in the rough ER and processes sorts and ships them to their final destination Membranous vesicles carry materials to and from the organelles Golgi serves as a carbohydrate factory to process oligosaccharides side chains on newly synthesized glycoproteins and glycolipids i adds carbs to proteins ii site polysaccharide synthesis for plant cell walls C Golgi Apparatus has 3 regions a b Cis region receives vesicles containing proteins from rough ER Trans region vesicles bud off from golgi apparatus and travel to cell membrane or to lysosomes Medial Region in between trans and cis regions Xll Lysosomes A Structure a Single membranous sac containing approximately 40 different digestive or hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules b Found in animal cells B Function a Used for digestion and waste processing b Lysosomal enzymes work best in acidic environment inside the lysosome c Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membranes are made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi Apparatus for more processing d Site where macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers
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