Chapter 1: History of Psychological Science
Chapter 1: History of Psychological Science PSY 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
CHAPTER 1 HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Psychological Science scientific study of mind brain and behavior Uses objective measures to determine natural laws that govern activities of the mind and the behaviors it produces objective measures accurately and repeatedly measure observations natural laws specific principles thought to be derived from nature quotuniversalquot The MindBody Problem Are the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind simply the physical brain39s subjective experience What is the difference The brain is the physical meat the mind is the outcome of the mental activity subjective experience Dualism belief that the world is composed of two separate substances mental substance the soul and physical substance the body Pato body is from the material world soul is from the world of ideas and is therefore immortal Monism Belief that the world can be explained by only one category of substance Hippocrates brain is seat of thoughts and emotions Aristotle heart is the seat of emotions Valentines day brain is just a quotcooling organquot OTHER PHILOSOPHERS Descares formed an argument for dualism the external soul controlled the body through the pineal gland Hobbes argued for a particular type of monism called materialism nothing exists except matter and energy All human thought and behavior can be explained in terms of physical processes in the body specifically in the brain Modern psychological science is based on a materialist view of the mind Phrenology study of structure of the skull to determine someone39s character and mental capachy Franz Josef Gall founder of Phrenology his thoughtsbeliefs over simplifications gt Brain is the organ of the mind Monist view gt The mind is composed of distinct innate faculties One part of the is different from other parts 0 Each faculty must have a distinct seat or quotorganquot in the brain gt The size of an organregion in the brain is a measure of its power gt The shape of the brain is determined by development of the various organs gt The skull takes its shape from the brain so the surface of the skull can be read as an accurate index of psychological aptitudes and tendencies WRONG Phrenoogy was a failed attempt to localize cognitive functions in the brain Anecdota Still some truth of phrenology modularity of mental functions mental functions can be divided into separate categories or independent processes localization of function bumps may not be be the telltale signs phrenologists thought they were but there is still evidence that certain areas of the brain contribute to certain tasks Broca39s Aphasia Some of the first good evidence for localization of a complex cognitive process Difficulty speaking but can comprehend Damage to a patient39s left half of a patient39s brain left inferior frontal gyrus prevented from saying anything other than the word quotTanquot although language comprehension was normal Damage to quotBroca39s Areaquot have difficulty with speech but can comprehend Spontaneously speaking Able to write Wernicke39s Aphasia sometimes called quotJargon Aphasiaquot because patients can speak but the content is meaningless no comprehension Associated with damage to a more posterior brain region superior temporal gyrus Cannot read and write Complex mental functions can be subdivided into separate distinct components auditory information hearing gt Wernicke39s Area comprehension gt Broca39s Area speech gt motor function physically speaking There is a physical basis for mental events It is possible to knock out some functions through physical destruction of the brain Aphasia deficit in language abilities Left hemisphere contributes to language Broca39s Area and Wernicke39s Area are both in the left hemisphere Functional MRI FMRI shows which part of the brain are active during different times Shows that certain mental functions are tied to certain parts of the brain How can you tell what someone is thinking Facial expressions Body language Ask someone Watch behavior Wilhelm Wundt reasoned that mental events take time and these can be measured Measured the time of mental events reaction times Introspectionism Wundt Study of conscious mental events by quotlooking withinquot observing and recording one39s thoughts and experiences Looks at the processing part of mental processing rather than just the content Problems with Introspectionism Variabiity one person39s impressions and perceptions are different from another39s Verification lack of public access to introspections misperceptions can39t be detected and disagreements cannot be resolved Vague Reliance on consciousness Many interesting mental event are unconscious ex memory content vs how did you remember a memory retrieval decision making visual processes Provides access to products of thinking rather than the processes that underlie it Structuralism Titchener Uses introspectionism to break apart and examine individual components of conscious experience Breaks down conscious experience to different sensations like the period table used to examine individual elements that make up a substance Total 50417 sensations Problem with Structuralism Consciousness is notjust the sum of its parts Apparent Motion Phi one dot bouncing vs two dots alternating Gestalt Psychology Attempts to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in a chaotic world quotthe whole is more than the sum of its partsquot Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable environmental effects on behavior a backlash to introspectioniststructuralist idea of studying unobservable mental effects How does environment affect behavior Environmental cues stimulus gt BRAIN black box gt Behavior response Founded by John Watson Popularized by BF Skinner and quotSkinner Boxquot operant chamber Displays operant conditioning Problems with Behaviorism Insufficiency cannot fully account for things such as creativity ex thinking outside the box or diversity and complexity of human behaviors ex language putting togetherunderstanding a sentence you39ve never saidheard before Narrow scope limiting science to only observable things Cognitive Science backlash to behaviorism uses behavior to infer what was going on inside the quotblack boxquot and uses knowledge of what is going on in the quotblack boxquot to help understand the constraints on conscious experience and behavior Considers mental processing as the software of the mind Cognitive Neuroscience uses behavior to infer what is going on inside the brain and uses knowledge what is going on in the brain to help understand the constraints on conscious experience and behavior Considers the brain as the hardware of the mind internal spatial map
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