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Date Created: 10/13/15
Chem 120 Study Guide for Midterm 1 Chapter 1 2 3 11 111113 Chapter 1 Matter Matter anything that has mass and occupies space 0 Can be found in multiple states Solid de nite shape and volume Liquid de nite volume but an inde nite shape Gas inde nite volume and shape Phase of matter is affected by temperature pressure and strength of forces Properties 0 Physical can be observed without changing the basic identity of the substance EX color melting point hardness smell etc 0 Chemical the characteristics of a a substance that describes its resistance to change or how it undergoes that change into a new substance EX decomposition rusting some chemical reaction etc Mixture a physical combination of two of more pure substances but each pure substance still retains its own chemical identity 0 Heterogeneous visible differences in appearance 0 Homogeneous one on visible distinct phase with uniform properties throughout Pure substance a single kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter or by physical means 0 Compounds can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances 0 Elements cant be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical means Need to know elements and symbols Agsilver Alaluminum Ar argon Augold Bboron Babarium Be Beryllium Br bromine Ccarbon CAcalcium Clchlorine Cucopper F uorine Feiron Hhydrogen Hgmercury liodine K potassium Lilithium Mgmagnesium Nnitrogen Nasodium Neneon Ninickel Ooxygen Pphosphorus PbIead Ptplatinum Ssulfur Sntin Uuranium Znzinc Chapter 2 Measurement in chemistry 0 Metric units 0 Length meters m 0 Mass grams g 0 Volume liters Lm for gases and liquids 0 Temperature Celsius C Sig gs 0 All non zeros count 0 Zeros Leading zero are never signi cant Trailing zeros No decimal point not signi cant Decimal point signi cant 0 Additionsubtraction Sig gs in answer product with the fewest numbers to the right of the decimal o Multiplication division Sig gs in answer least number of sig gs in product 0 Conversion factors 0 Used to show how speci c units are related to each other 0 Increase the size of the unit Kilo k 1000 Mega M 1000000 Giga G 1000000000 Tera T 1000000000000 Peta P 1000000000000000 o Decrease the size of the unit Deci d 1 Centi c 01 Milli m 001 Micro greek u 000 001 Nano n 000 000 001 Pico p 000 000 000 001 Femto f 000 000 000 000 001 0 Density is the ratio of the mass of an object to the volume occupied by that object 0 Density massvolume I D mv I Units just the units of the massvolume 0 Temperature scale tendency of heat energy to be transferred from one object to another 0 Fahrenheit I Smaller degree size I 32 freezing I 212 boiling O Celsius most commonly used in scientific work I O freezing I 100 boiling 0 Kelvin makes all temperature reading positive by setting 0 as the absolute zero where there is no kinetic energy I Same degrees increments as Celsius I Degree C 273K degree K 0 Converting between temperature scales I F95 C32 I C59F 32 Chapter 3 Atomic structure and the periodic table 0 Atom smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element 0 Nucleus small dense and positively charged center of the atom Protons cause the positive charge of the nucleus atomic number Z Neutrons Neutrons protons Mass number A 0 Number of electrons number of protons Electrons H This way the atom is of neutral charge 0 Isotopes are atoms of an element that have same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons 0 Same atomic number different mass numbers 0 Same chemical properties but slightly different physical properties Finding the elements atomic mass 0 Multiplying the relative mass of each isotope by its fractional abundance and then totaling the products Molecule a group of 2 of mole atoms that function as a unit because they are bonded o Homoatomic all atoms are of the same element 0 Heteroatomic 2 or more kinds of atoms 0 Diatomic di two so they contain 2 atoms 0 Triatomic trithree so they have 3 atoms Continues numerically Periodic table 0 Period row 0 Group column 1 IA Alkali metals 2 HA Alkaline earth metals 3 MB 12 8 transition metals 17 VllA Halogen 18 VlllA Noble gases 0 Metal characteristics of luster thermal conductivity electronic conductivity malleability 0 Non Metal absence of the characteristics of metals Electron con guration 0 Electron shell is a region in of space around the nucleus that contains electrons that have about the same energy ad that spend most of their time approximately that same distance from the nucleus I Electron sub shells a region of space within an electron shell that contains electrons that have the same energy 0 Sr P dr fr Shell 1 1 subshell gt ls 2e Shell 2 2 subshells gt 25 2e 2p 6e Shell 3 3 subshells gt 35 2e 3p 6e 3d 10e Shell 4 4 subshells gt 45 2e 4p 6e 4d 10e 4f 14e Electron orbitals a region of space within an electron subshell where an electron where an electron with a speci c energy is most likely to be found 0 Can only accommodate a maximum of 2 electrons These electrons must spin opposite of each other so one will spin clockwise and one will spin counter clockwise to balance out in diagrams the one up pointing arrow and the one down pointing arrow 0 Each subshell has a distinct shape to it S circular I set of 2 P dumbbell gure 8 o 3 sets of 2 Dclover 5 sets of 2 F ower 0 7 sets of 2 Diagrams o Subshell energy order lsgt25gt2pgt35gt3pgt4sgt3dgt4pgt55gt4dgt5pgt6sgt4fgt5d gt6pgt7sgt5fgt6dgt7p use a subscript to indicate how full the outer most electron shell has 0 atomic number number of electrons ex B has 5 electrons o lsA225A22pA1 0 Using the periodic table Distinguishing electrons is the last electron added to the electron con guration for an element when electron subshells are lled in order of increasing energy 0 This last electron is what causes the element to differ from the element preceding in FEW 5 blank HmhEr is H 3quot 1quot black 4 quot ire i i i l i i s l 5 4 J quot it if L inf 7 l T A 3rl39 L l i l l l l ljl Read from left to right The distinguishing electron will be found on the S subshell for the 5 block the distinguishing electron will be from the p sub shell from the p block and so on Chapter 11 Nuclear chemistry Nuclide is an atom with a speci c atomic number and a speci c mass number 0 Stable does not readily undergo change 0 Unstable spontaneously undergoes change 0 Alpha particle emission 0 Beta particle emission U 416 o Gamma ray emission o It has no change or mass so you have to be told to use a gamma ray in the equa on
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