Week Two Lecture Notes & Selected Outlines
Week Two Lecture Notes & Selected Outlines GE CLST 30A-1
Popular in Never-Ending Stories: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Myth
Popular in Arts and Humanities
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivian Yang on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 30A-1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Prof. Kendrick, Prof. Nagy, Prof. Watkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Never-Ending Stories: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Myth in Arts and Humanities at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/13/15
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J39r The American Heritage Dictionary of lndoEuropean Roots lndoEuropean and the lndoEuropeans o lndoEuropean name given to large linguistic family based on geography 0 includes past and present European languages including those of Iran Afghanistan and the northern Indian subcontinent o spread through W Hemisphere by colonization 0 18th c colonialism amp mercantilism gt introduction of Sanskrit to European scholars familiar w Latin Greek amp European cultural languages Romance Germanic Slavic 0 comparison to the classic languages revolutionized perceptions on linguistic relationships 0 Jones Sanskrit more refined perhaps all three once had common roots Bopp creates new science of comparative grammar comparatist 1 fact amp 1 hypothesis certain languages have similarities too numerous and precise to be coincidence 0 some similarities accidental amp between non related languages some universal someborrowed words 0 however when all these coincidences are excluded there is only one conclusion genetic filiation descent from common ancestor o in case of IndoEuropean languages Jones says common ancestor no longer exists 0 19th c scholars start looking at similarities from languages Iceland to India Scandinavia to Greece grouping languages into the lndoEuropean family 0 Meilet term lndoEuropean language for every language which at any time whatever in any place whatever however altered is a form taken by this ancestor language 0 dialectsbranches of lndoEuropean represented today lndolranian Armenian BaltoSlavic Albanian Celtic Icelandic amp Germanic two other branches now extinctHittite amp other Anatolian languages earliest of family of modern day Turkey amp two Tocharian languages easternmost ChineseTurkestan o lndoEuropean family only one of many different language families in world several thousand languages 0 lndoEuropean speakers half world population 0 English 1 of many direct descendants of lndoEuropean Prehistoric Common Germanic gt different branches including West Germanic gt different branches including Old English gt English 0 history our linguistic heritage amp our ancestors in cultural sense linguistic ancestors 0 does NOT imply geneticbiological descent languages transmitted by conquest assimilation migration other ethnic movements 0 English has lost most of inherited Old English words 0 includes many borrowed words of different languages amp heavily influenced by ancientmodern lndo European languages but the inherited portion core of language o in a sense it has replaced the IndoEuropean lexicon it lost 0 study of comparative linguistics attracting more and more interest since 1870s more advanced linguistic theories more information available more defined language grammar amp elements 0 comparative method one fact and one hypothesis most powerful device for elucidating linguistic history 0 leads to assumption of existence of antecedent common language amp reconstructs salient important features grammar amp lexicon The Branches of IndoEuropean 0 most widely accepted model shows IndoEuropean family w 10 principal branches some more closely related than others Anatolian o discovered 20th c extinct but contains oldest preserved IndoEuropean languages spoken in modernday Turkey amp Syria best known Hittite in over 10000 clay tablet fragments in Babylonian cuneiform script 0 Cuneiform Luvian amp Hieroglyphic Luvianspoken in S amp WAnatolia probably also by Troy amp the Trojans o attested in monumentalother inscriptions of SE Turkey amp N Syria IndoIranian 0 includes ancient amp modern languages of large part of C amp 8 Asia 0 lndic amp Iranian peoples migrated to Afghanistan amp E Indian plateau 2nd millennium bc 0 lndoAryan group established itself as ruling classgt establishment of the kingdom of Mittanni eventually would die out o Oldest preserved literature in both lndic amp Iranian orally composed hyms 0 ex RigVeda songs of Zarathustra texts not written until long after composition 0 oldest written lndic texts in Middle lndic oldest Iranian Old Persian 0 Iranian continued in modern languages of Iran amp Afghanistan minorities of Iraq amp Turkey 0 lndic continued by HinduUrdu amp other IndoAryan languages of 8 Asia Greek Hellenic o sole member of Hellenic branch Greek European language w longest recorded history 0 spoken throughout Asia Africa amp Italy 0 oldest inscriptions Mycenaean dialect oldest alphabet Greek Homer s poetry Italic o inscriptionally attested in C amp 8 Italy consisted of many languages amp dialects of limited geographic distribution 0 Latin eventually eclipsed all other local languages which died out at least in written form by Christian era 0 led to modern Romance languages Celtic 0 now geographically restricted to parts of British Isles amp N Franch once most powerful amp widespread people of W Europe 0 best known of extinct Celtic languages of continental Europe Gaulish o surviving ones include modern Irish Welsh amp Breton also the only branch of lndoEuropean threatened with extinction Germanic o spoken prehistorically by tribes of N Europe 0 earliest inscriptions Runic in runes oldest extensive text New Testament translated to Gothic extinct o of surviving languages English longest recorded history Armenian o oldest translation of Bible to Classical Armenian but was present in history much earlier 0 today it is spoken in diverse dialects in Armenia Turkey Caucasus Near East amp other parts of Europe amp the Americas Tocha an c not discovered until 20th c now extinct 0 two languages A amp B preserved in Buddhist writings unearthed in Chinese Turkestan or modern day Xinjiang BaltoSlavic o spoken since prehistoric times in eastern Europe 0 introduced to writing through missionaries o 2 living Baltic languages Lithuanian amp Latvian first written 16th c Albanian o spoken in Albania amp parts of Italy in 2 dialects Gheg amp Tosk c not attested formally certified for until 15th c o prehistory controversial can be considered descendant of little known ancient Balkan language DacoMysian Other Branches 0 number of scantily attested ancient languages of lndoEuropean family that have uncertain filiation within the family Phrygian Thracian Venetic Messapic etc An Example of Reconstruction o denotes wordform not preserved in written documents but has evidence of existence 0 number of lndoEuropean languages similar word for kinship term daughter in law 0 in patriarchal society bride lives in husband s father s house daughterinlaw amp bride were equivalents 0 these forms cognates provide evidence for phonetic shape of prehistoric lndoEuropean word for daughterinlaw o Sanskrit Germanic amp Slavic sn 0 3 lost before n although other lE languages use words with n first words are considered to go back to sn 0 principle of regularity of sound correspondences basic to sciences of etymology amp comparative linguistics o evidence by comparison of languages amp knowledge of linguistics provides evidence of feminine form snus s o no language preserves this word intact ProtolndoEuropean Grammar Sounds and Forms 0 success of comparative method number amp precision of agreements among languages 0 sounds correspondences of roots particulars of morphology forms of grammatical function 0 examples are shown in actual text not included in this outline o agreement of detail in sound correspondences vowel alternations amp distribution accent grammatical formsendings amp syntactic functions Speech Sounds and their Alternations 0 system of sounds in ProtolndoEuropean rich in stop consonants o unvoiced series voiced aspirate murmured series etc o 3 series of klike sounds termed palatal plain amp labiovelar I series losttransformed in different languages few continuants fricatives like English f v th 2 had 3 laryngeals hlike sounds lost in all but Hittite amp other Anatolian languages 0 problems for lE scholars today 0 two nasals m n amp two liquids r l amp glides w y can function as consonants and vowels other vowels included eoa evidence of daughter languages sometimes allows for reconstruction but not specific to the exact word 0 characteristic feature system of vocalic alternations termed apophonyabaut set of internal vowel changes expressing different morphological functions Grammatical Forms and Syntax o PlE ProtolndoEuropean highly inflected language 0 grammatical relationships amp syntactic functions of words in sentenceindicated primarily by variations in endings of words 0 very little preserved in Modern English o with exception of numbers 510 amp group of particles all lE words underwent in ec on 0 root could undergo certain modifications extensionsenlargements did not affect basic meaning reflected formal variations bw languages root suffixes stems which represented basic lexical stock of lE o lE extensive use of suffixation few prefixes use of prefixes development of individual languages after breakup of common language 0 important technique of word formation composition combining of 2 separate wordsnotions in single word 0 forms built on underlying simple sentences he who cuts wood woodcutter 0 compounds considered particularly apt for elevated formal styles characteristic of poetic language 0 names of individuals esp in priestly ruling amp warrior classes formed by twomember compounds Semantics 0 meaning of a root can only be extrapolated from the meaning of its descendents which often diverge from each other 0 reconstructed words often have vague meanings 0 some roots can be given semantic values Lexicon and Culture 0 reconstruction of a protoanguage common ancestor of family of spokenattested languages presents existence of prehistoric society 0 ProtolndoEuropean supposes existence of society of lE and lE culture 0 language linked to culture expression of culture amp part of it especially lexicon of language its dictionary is a face towards culture 0 lexicon single most effective way of approaching amp understanding culture of speakers 0 lE lexicon provides clear view of whole culture 0 archaeological evidence limited to material remains but human culture is not confined to material artifacts reconstruction of vocabulary presents fuller view of culture because it includes nonmaterial culture 0 ex religion to form idea of religion of a people archaeologists infer examine temples sanctuaries idols votive objects amp other material remains I these may not be forthcoming ex cannot be used to understand religion of ancient Hebrews o lE speaking society can reconstruct word for god especially a head father god like Jupiter of Rome to present how a god can be linked to the notion of the bright sky amp that the society was patriarchal o comparative method enables construction of basic vocabulary not precise or uniform General Terms 0 begin w sampling of basic terms w no special cultural value c persistence of certain phrases may present importance of different ritualsvalues o cognates provide evidence for demonstrative and interrogative pronouns c all lE languages show decimal system of numerals even sharing common numerical names 210 100 Nature and the Physical Environment 0 large number of terms relating to time weather seasons amp natural surroundings can be reconstructed from daughter languages 0 can allow certain inferences about homeland of lE people lunar month unit of time words month amp moon connected evidence from several traditions for similar designations of constellations sun movement names of point of compass word for snow ubiquitous homeland must have had snow but rain varied along with sky cloud and heaven 0 absence of word for sea may have been inland people yet water transportation used od words for boatship amp poleoar o widespread words for different trees especially beech may have been different species 0 only apple and cherry trees known 0 taboo for wof amp bear beaver mice amp hare ubiquitouswidespread also had common birds fish and insects People and Society 0 number of terms to denote human beings o well preserved vocabulary for parts of body 0 origin words for kinship reconstructed to present patriarchal society 0 house amp household social unit human settlements often on high places Economic Life and Technology 0 principal of exchange amp reciprocal giftgiving common characteristics in lE amp other archaic societies also ensured wealth circulation 0 left traces in how in different languages to take and to gift are cognates 0 people practiced agriculture amp cultivation of cereals terms for grains farming etc stockbreeding amp animal husbandry important part of economic life w common words for domesticated animals common words for fabricating weaving knew metallurgy iron gold copper silver 0 not long utilize wheels words were mostly metaphors off existing words 0 idea that distribution of wheel 5th millennium BC latest possible date for PlE Ideology 0 many verbs denoting mental activity molding dough clay etc ideas of government amp sovereignty presence of old word for tribal king only exists in extreme east amp extreme west MUST have been present in early PlE society 0 also differentiated between king amp priests strong ideas of contracts honor punishment carecure buildcreate very rich in religious vocabulary including words for prayers rituals worship idea of metaphysics in life holyhealthiness strong use of poetryrhetoric amp metaphors can sometimes find multiple traditions in words ex for fame poets immortality of gods prayer etc similar formulaic language in myths poetry amp narratives commonly have godhero that slays monsterdragon serpent etc that symbolizes forces of stagnation dormancy and death Conclusion article is only a brief sample of the reconstruction of lndoEuropean lexicon archeologists have not located lndoEuropeans only idea that it had small tribal units was largely pastoral used horsebreeding amp plant cultivation and had small subterraneanaboveground rectangular hut of timber uprights sometime middle of 5th millennium BC there was expansion from north of Black Sea to Balkans area 0 may be related to Kurgans in some distant way true origin may never be known but comparative method in historical linguistics may show ancient ways of life amp modes of thought