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Chapter 2: Research Methods

by: Rachel Kasashima

Chapter 2: Research Methods PSY 201

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 201 > Chapter 2 Research Methods
Rachel Kasashima
GPA 3.95
Mind and Brain >3
Dassonville P

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Here are the lecture notes that I took from Chapter 2: Research Methods.
Mind and Brain >3
Dassonville P
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Tuesday October 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 10/13/15
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODS Objective observations of mental processes Goals of Psychological Science 0 Description Detail or catalogue mental processes and behaviors to understand information be er 0 Understanding Develop explanations or theories of how the mind works Sometimes those explanations are wrong 0 Prediction Use theories to predict behaviors and thoughts then test those predictions to see if they39re correct 0 Application Apply theories to influence behavior and thought Ways of knowing 0 Tenacity having a belief based on the idea that quotit must be truequot or quotwe39ve always known it to be this wayquot 0 belief held regardless of evidence to contrary O typified by stereotyped beliefs about race or religion 0 YOU MIGHT BE WRONG Authority acceptance of a belief based on the word of a trusted authority 0 doctors parents government media scientists teachers textbooks etc 0 a useful way of acquiring knowledge 0 AUTHORITIES MIGHT BE WRONG 0 Reason acceptance of a belief because it is logically consistent with other beliefs 0 based on logical principle not direct experience 0 REASONING MIGHT BE WRONG Observation acceptance of a belief because of evidence witnessed firsthand 0 PERCEPTIONS CAN BE DISTORTED OR BIASED The Scientific Method 0 THEORY An explanation or model of how some psychological phenomenon works gt Cognitive processing relies on a limited store of mental resources 392 0 A brain 39s mental resources are limited it can only do so much at one time 0 HYPOTHESIS A specific testable prediction about the outcome of an event gt Distractions consume mental resources leaving fewer for other tasks 0 More specifically Cell phone use increases braking distance in response to sudden obstacle 0 DATA Results of an objective and verifiable test of a hypothesis gt If the prediction fails you can revise the theorv and go through the process again gt Test a subject by putting them in a car simulator a virtual environment and have them drive with a cell phone while virtually placing objects that they would have to avoid Take measurements of the subject39s braking distance with and without the cell phone 0 Experiment An attempt to identify a causeandeffect relationship between two phenomenon by manipulating one phenomenon and observing the effect on the other gt Steps in an experiment 1 Formulation of the theory often formulated by other scientists 2 Formulation of the specific hypothesis make predictions 3 Design a test of the hypothesis A Variables A variable dimension that can be objectively measured a Independent variable the manipulated variable hypothesized to be the cause of the predicted effect b Dependent variable the measured variable hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable 4 Perform the test and observe results collect data The experimenter manipulates the independent variable to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable 5 Critical evaluation of the results analyze and interpret data 6 Revise the theory if necessary 7 Communicate the findings in scientificjournals and presentations 0 Science is an objective method driven by observations that can be verified and replicated In other words science is datadriven 0 Science is selfcorrecting correct observations will be replicated while incorrect observations will be ruled out because of failure to replicate Descriptive Statistics 0 Central Tendency typical valuescore O meanarithmetic average of scores 0 medianthe middle score in the range of scores 0 modethe most frequent score 0 Variability degree to which numbers are dispersed about the mean 0 rangehighest scorelowest score 0 standard deviationaverage difference between each score and the mean score correlation measures the strength and the direction of the relationship between 2 variables Ranges from 1 to 1 0 Correlation does NOT imply causation 0 Could be a third factor a confound that plays a role in the other two 0 Even if there is a causal relationship its direction is often uncertain 0 Could be a random relationship that only appears correlated


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