PSYC Ch. 10 notes
PSYC Ch. 10 notes PSYC 10213
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
PSYC Ch. 10: Intelligence Intelligence: (in all cultures) is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.” Charles Spearman: The idea that general intelligence (g) exists. He helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. *Athleticism, like intelligence, is many things. General Intelligence: is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. - For example, people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor. Howard Gardner: Proposes 8 types of intelligence, maybe a 9 (existential intelligence: ability to think about the question of life, death and existence) 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-mathematical 3. Musical 4. Spatial 5. Bodily-kinesthetic 6. Intrapersonal (self) 7. Interpersonal (other ppl) 8. Naturalist Robert Sternberg: suggests 3 intelligences, not 8. Tri-archic theory 1. Analytical Intelligence: Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests. 2. Creative Intelligence: Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel (new) situations, generating novel ideas. 3. Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts). Intelligence and Creativity: Creativity: the ability to produce ideas that are both novel (new) and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence. 1. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base. 2. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways. 3. A Venturesome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. 4. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within. 5. A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions (Salovey and others, 2005). The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components. 4 Components: 1. Perceive emotion: Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories 2. Understand emotion: Predict emotions, how they change and blend 3. Manage emotion: Express emotions in different situations 4. Use emotion: Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative Assessing Intelligence: Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores. Alfred Binet: Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions (by Age) that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Lewis Terman: In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: IQ= (Mental age/chronological age) x100 David Wechsler: Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for school-aged children. WAIS: Measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems. *You have to make sure its not testing cultural knowledge. Ex: when is Independence Day? Principles of Test Correction: For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: 1. Standardization 2. Reliability 3. Validity Standardization: Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. *Always given in the exact same way. Normal Curve: Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve. Reliability: A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures: 1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. 2. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. Validity: Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. Ex: going in to a psychology class and being given a geometry test. (reliable but not valid) Ex: measuring head sizes (reliable but not valid) 1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. 2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait. Extremes of intelligence: -Mentally retarded (IQ 70): required constant supervision a few decades ago, but with a supportive family environment and special education they can now care for themselves. Different levels (mild, moderate, severe, profound). -High intelligence (IQ 135): tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and unusually successful academically. (Prodigies) Genetic Influences (look in book): Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence. Adoption Studies: Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents. Early intervention Effects: Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence. School Effects: Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores. Gender Similarities and Differences: There are seven ways in which males and females differ in various abilities.
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