Lectures 1-5 GE CLST 60A
Popular in General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974
GE CLST 60A
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sandy Ho on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 60A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Decker, J.L. Aberbach, J.D. Schwartz, J.A. Lewis, L.V. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974 in Social Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
GE CLST 60A America in the 60s 19541974 Lecture 1 92415 Into musicians twisting music and using it as a tool to make a point social oppression musicalliteraturecultural revolution will America be affected today by it 1960s began with 1954 Brown v Board of Education 0 others believe it began with the civil rights mvmt free speech mvmt o purpose of education 0 quotunder godquot conformist saying added during cold war to pledge of allegiance 0 issues still present I anxiety of war I fear of racial gender discrimination c an informative revolutionary age forgotten Preamble The 1950s Politics and Images 0 main points 0 the decades of peace prosperity and paranoia I post VWV2 sense of normalcy 0 visual images of the 50s 60s 0 the power of ads 0 The 608 0 TV Mr Ed talking horse dimension of hip vs square introduce the beginning of not being normal 0 cultural shift tupenNare party intro of the refrigerator and storage of food in plastic intro to convenience skinny models less structure in art 0 America in the 1950s 0 610 adults had college degree 2015 25 adults now have college degre 36 housewives 2015 now 8 45 democrats 31 republicans 50 find important differences between parties trust in the gov t 1958 20 doesn t trust gov t hikes to 75 in 1980 I cause of this Watergate Vietnam war 0 Elections 0 1952 Eisenhower 55 v Stevenson 44 o 1956 Eisenhower 57 v Stevenson o 1960 Nixon v 0 Events in 1950s 0 thousands of servicemen return I new families new homes 0 growth in consumption I economies of scale technology I baby boom america becoming the most prosperous world has ever seen OOOO O the car mass production of cheap cars and cheap gas 0 Value and Worth 0 Suburban Homes increase of size 1950 1000 sqft 1970 1500 sqft 2000 2200 sqft 0 economic prosperity O O 0000 0 american product in demand worldwide toys for upper class fancy refrigerators range top ovens convertible automobiles and TV are middle class staple great depression and sacrifice in war over millions migrate to suburbs conformity and convenience prevailed ingredients in a box in kitchens no longer have to make everything from scratch family life changed women reconsider their roles in household 0 TV end of WW2 only a few thousands had TV 1950s 66 had TV Lecture The Cold War and Balance of Power Movie Screening 0 satire would never happen politicians would not debate for that long air force not that useless peace is our profession doomsday machine fear of enemy attack threatening to destroy all tension during Cold War missiles pointing to each nation 0 realism army willing to take what it took to complete their mission American character Ex losing gas and yet continuing on to fight for US died too After W2 0 what kind of world will emerge 0 two competing systems of gov39t fundamental difference different economies USSR requires totalitarian v US capitalism different lifestyles less open to change verbalize thoughts trusts authority more different beliefs Protestants questioning v Orthodox obey Communist Agenda 0 revolution of working class 0 is this theoretical o is this a practical call to arms 0 how do we interpret Soviet action in light of this goal 0 maybe a call to arms fight for power 0 conditions our interpretation of Soviet behavior What is power 0 material 0 capabilities and resources 0 military raise arms deploy navies occupy territory bomb cities 0 economic impose sanctions levy tariffs o relational o A s ability to get B to do something it would not do othenNise 0 what is a balance of power 0 a theory an equilibrium a goal a system a policy 0 how do you know when you have a balance 0 some things kept secret o espionage 0 does one side have more weapons more economic power 0000 o can A make B do something 0 Balance of power in real time 0 without outcomes how can actors assess the balance of power 0 How to judge Soviet capabilities How do you evaluate Soviet intentions 0 who is the aggressor 0 Strategic environment 0 US has to infer USSR intentions from observed behavior Minimizing Max Regret 0 worst case scenario you have more power than I do 0 how to avoid worst case 0 work to maintain the balance 0 at some cost 0 called Minimax Game theory 0 con don t know what the other person will do 0 if both cooperate and chose dominate strategy both win 0 prisoner s dilemma if both don t cooperate both lose 0 The Arms Race and MAD o The Rand Corp I 1950s Think Tank 0 Apply Game Theory to the Balance of Power I assumption rational actors I equilibria exist that help us explain the Arms Race 0 increase material power 0 more missiles longer ranges better weapons stronger armies better technology 0 other side does the same 0 both sides believe they have no choice they are just keeping the balance 0 but with so many weapons aroundmutually assured destruction MAD Balance of Power Influence o Soviet army occupied nations in both E Europe and E Asia after W2 0 Communism spread to many countries 0 Ex Bulgaria China Latin AMerica o The domino theory if one country falls to communism another will follow and then another the spread has to be stopped at every opportunity 0 creation of classless stateless society and the abolition of private property Fear of Growing Soviet Power 0 1942 Communist Party of the US had 50000 members 1949 Soviets test 1st atomic bomb Communists take control of mainland China US fought communist aggression in Korea Alger Hiss McCarthy o A climate of fear at home 0 HUAC House UnAmerican Activities Committee 0 19451975 standing committee of the US House 0 keep AMericans safe I from Nazis I KKK I Communists o McCarthy rises from the Senate to do similar to the work in the House o Exploiting American Fear 0 Cold War made exploiting people s fear easy 0 is it exploitation if the threat is real I if people s fears are real why are politicians distasteful if they campaign on highlighting these fears o is this partisan tactic Support for McCarthy 0 1950 50 Americans supported him only 29 disliked him 0 What are the costs of being wrong If these people weren t communists there s nothing to fearbut if they were 0 There were some critics though Politicians and the Press 0 cn que o propaganda o mythifying Lecture 2 Advertising and Images The power and meaning of ads Introduction I this sign doesn t eXist because it was never seen 0 a heart doesn t look like the real heart the symbol is made representation of the heartlove 0 signs symbols infused with meaning by people 0 meanings can change throughout eras Overview of Advertising 0 special form of communication 0 have to see hear and read simultaneously 0 Audio 0 music sounds 0 words 0 visual 0 images 0 words 0 inference drawn can be misleading when different elements are integrated and analyzed together Audio what is heard 0 Music 0 can be happy or scary 0 often changes as images change 0 Background sounds 0 birds water heartbeats ticking clocks 0 meaning can shift from how it is used EX in movie clock increasing pressure in election clock is countdown to results 0 Words 0 text in complete sentences 0 often voiceovers rarely in candidates own voice 0 Presidents in 1990s take credit of the ads used by saying I am and I approve of the message Visual what you see 0 Images 0 children family meeting and greeting shows family values if children like them they are good 0 candidate at work doing his job 0 Words 0 single words ash on screen 0 sources for facts 0 slogans Advertising Effects are special it s the union of these effects that makes them powerful and sometimes misleading emotional suggestive informational context also important satisfying v maximizing 0 not a lot of people known political context chooses what appears on ads as okay Advertising Images in 50s 0 early ads were black and white 0 cartoon images popular 0 ads underscored conformity of decade 0 shows peace prosperity conformity 0 Ex women were mostly targeted for consumer goods homemakers 0 Ex promoting coke women sitting down to relax 1952 Vote for Eisenhower Ad 0 catchy tunemusic repetitive happy spring to it light tone sound matches image moving up and down rhythm fast and consistent led by bassline harmony bw women and men 0 sounds including images imply a parade 0 cartoon people depicting all classes and backgrounds favored by all people farmers bakers Uncle Sam working people factory in the background family elephant representing republican party leading parade 0 said all good Americans should be in the parade be an american hero 0 not diverse ethnicities I when does this happen 0 no soldiers bc of statesman and soldier role I less military presence Korean war 0 donkeys as Truman Stevensonreference to Democratic party one lonely donkey walking away Stevenson sun rises calling for people to join them in Washington policies not told images imply policies that might come by using the people working class makin more jobs 1952 Eisenhower Ad 0 biography ad 0 Abilene Kansas 0 small house small town I average American background can relate to majority O rose and brought triumph in WW2 0 leader among leaders connections judgement experience with USSR Europe 0 man on the street interview Eisenhower appears uncertain no eye contact not knowing how to use new medium says nation not ready for ghting against Korea He will bring change vote for peace vote for Eisenhower used lm footage to make stories realistic 1960 Kennedy Ad 0 people advocating Kennedy 0 diversity gender ethnicities name repeated many times real images with drawing march and vote for nominating convention family picture used to pacify public about Catholics and age insists he s old enough for politics but young enough to be bold to make decisions 0 old enough to know young enough to do 0 lots of you s up to you to make the decision 1960 election Latino vote 0 Latina speaking for Kennedy Semiotics 101 0 study of signs and systems of communication 0 qualitative quantitative analysis driven o from the Greek semeion sign How is meaning made 0 sign signi er sound and image signi ed concept thoughtrepresentation o EX glass cup is the signi er and the water is the concept 0 relationship bw signi er and signi ed is arbitrary signi er doesn t have to have signi ed radical change in meaning of signs not always possible world resists Social world in relation to the signi er and signi ed 0 Roland Barthes wrote book Mythologies 0 from denotative sign language to connotative sign myth 0 Myth 0 depoliticized representationway of presenting society as a natural given Role of the critic 0 situate signs with their contexts 0 history 0 politics 0 culture 0 institutions 0 attend to compleXity and contradiction of any sign Lecture 3 Listening in the Early Cold War Conformity and Counter Culture Questions 0 O 0 historical context developed I how to produce and consume meaning in listening cultures what conformity and counter culture have to do with the tension bw square and hip new conceptualization of present life and how the future emerged with the atomic bomb and so on Historical context 0 O 1948 Truman desegregated military 1954 Brown vs Board of Education separate educational facilities are inherently unequal I victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall 1st African American Supreme justice African success Postwar Listening Cultures O listening cultures groups of people who share beliefs about and practices around specific orientations to the sound in their environment developed from the ways people internalized the safety of the US nation the American dream in everyday life people and gov began eavesdropping to listen for communist activities I Ex Johnny Cash hip with music became square when he started giving gov t message of conformity to gov t I threat increasing fearfulsome tired about duck and cover message 0 Ex A Mushroom Cloud please please where did you go can also be peace peace where did you go demonstrates how fear has wiped out dream 0 duck and cover message ironic uselessshelters will do nothing if atomic bomb did come Music Semiotics O musical signs I happens through connotations of sounds with things feelings etc I connotations made and circulated by people within listening community semiotics of music deals with relations bw sounds we call musical and what those sounds signify in specific sociocultural contexts signification meaning historical context of musical significationsame set of musical sounds does not mean same thing in diff cultures or diff times in same culture Ex sound signifier ring tone signified someone s calling diff interpretation of every sound bc of diff experience emotional response auditory memory icons associated with sounds become part of everyday life Cold War icon atomic bomb Boomll ticking clock countdown of time left Structure of Survival 0 0 central to the emotional management of civil defense programs I knew if atomic bomb came there would be paranoia so programs were meant to calmprepare the people realized primarily in various sonic texts I recorded guides to survival ex The Complacent Americans I public service announcements PSA ex Alert today Alive tomorrow 1953 I popular music individual songs and 45s I more and more funds used to get attention of audience 0 people eventually turns mute to sounds and message 0 have 3 parts that parallel the FCDA s emergency instructions I Part 1 Shock and Alert 1 discern markers from chaotic situation I Part 2 Recover and warning emotional state and info listen to radio I Part 3 Survival and Alert 2 stay alert and listen for more instructions 0 implementation of silence and stillness arrest for those who didn t comply with civil defence procedures 0 Listening atomically take into consideration a song s relation to bomb is our perception of the music changed can aspects of emotional management be heard conventional parameters I doowop genre I nonsense syllables used in place of lyrics I close harmony I Ex ShBoom attempt to sound the awesomeness of the bomb while putting the devastating morbid effects of the bomb under erasure through its upbeat tempo and simplistic idealistic lyrics ShBoom prominent Life could be a dream parenthetical ShBoom musical gesture of privileged anticipation over underlying fear I Ex thirteen women 1954 dreamingfantastical part of the Hbomb covers consumerism OOOO Lec Time Out of Joint Why bother humanities 0 Albert Einstein quotImaginationquot quote 0 Steve Jobs Why Study literature 0 enhance our mystery of storytelling what39s inside the literary critic39s toolbox 0 basic literary genres 0 poetry 0 plays 0 prose o widely used literary devices 0 allusion o metaphor o narrative structure 0 point of view 0 elements of literary history 0 author s biography 0 market place for art 0 artistic cross currents 0 politics Half baked futuristic inventions and cliches o perhaps throwing life away Time Out of Joint apprehends the 1950s Dick s present through the past of a specific future our present I know they are spying on me the two soldiers the cab driver paranoia and conspiracy experienced as semiotic arousal o the meaningmaking process quickens enlightens coheres deepens and what can t be seen is hidden from us by them In the opening pages of Time Out of Joint what tells us it s the 1950s 0 Consumer objects 0 from producer to consumer society after WW2 overflows 0 cars Volkswagen Beetles 0 TV 0 neon signs motels diners pay phones James DeanMarilyn Monroe book club tennis rackets and camp stoves era of luxury 0 Cultural Stereotypes Myths Ike s America Main Street USA suburban living neighbors nosey and flirtatious red scare domestic and foreign SputnikUFOs Hbombs 000000 0000000 Literary Realism o prose that portray life in a faithful accurate manner unclouded by false ideals literary conventions or misplaced aesthetic glorification and beautification of the world An attempt to reflect life as it is Realism in Paintings 0 scenery faces of people obscured o sometimes based on stereotypes of a type of role or classification 0 sometimes by modernists an individualist characteristic is brought out o transparent no filter 0 surrealism subset of realism What happens when Dick exposes fiction to realism science fiction disrupts everyday reality and generates an implicit modernist critique of the realist aesthetic Philosophical modernism semiotic seizures 0 analyzed how Ragle saw through the softdrink stand to the molecules within and then changing to a slip of paper 0 semiotic seizure explained as the propensity of objects to be evasive
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