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CR: Broadsides to Broadcasts

by: Sandy Ho

CR: Broadsides to Broadcasts GE CLST 60A

Sandy Ho
GPA 4.0
General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974
Decker, J.L. Aberbach, J.D. Schwartz, J.A. Lewis, L.V.

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General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974
Decker, J.L. Aberbach, J.D. Schwartz, J.A. Lewis, L.V.
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sandy Ho on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 60A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Decker, J.L. Aberbach, J.D. Schwartz, J.A. Lewis, L.V. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974 in Social Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Ads and Politics Broadsides to Broadcasts Kathleen Hall Jamieson Ch 1 0 James Bryce 1888 election campaigns in US demonstrated patriotism excitement called booming 3 0 what created the boom was indeed the advertising that went on throughout the election 0 parallelism used to emphasize the effects of ads they impress the publicthey strike the imagination of those in country towns 3 o nowadays half of pop appear to vote and much of the campaigning is experienced at home 0 great change since America was created in political system 0 varying parties contested elections addresses to the people party nominations mass media 0 right to vote for all which was once restricted by sex race and gender I Ex 1716 S Carolina property test restriction of Jews religious test Virginia most own 50 acres of land 713 colonies restricted voting for 1st 25 years less than 6 had right to vote 18th century male suffrage 19th century suffrage for African Americans and women voting age decreased to 18 o Founders had wanted the electoral process to be dignified with only the most respected and capable in office I After Washington elections started with pamphlets and broadsides sent everywhere criticizing opposing candidates I 1828 Jackson 1st time votes cast were for electors committed to particular candidates What had happened before then I campaign organizations made to dig up trashfaultsleak holes in opposing candidates For Examples read pg 67 for Jackson v Adams presidential campaign 0 National Political Parties rose from the 1828 election as foretold by the clashes between the Federalists and antiFederalists in Jefferson s time 7 0 limited the of candidates for the presidency o magnified the contest among candidates governed the expansion of campaign organizations I Jackson s supporters laid the beginning of the Democratic party namely by using the spoils system which although was disapproved of was intended to reform the corrupt officials and system c helped solidify support for Jackson and subverted opposing parties parties helped identify candidates for voters used to control and direct the struggle for power Rossiter 8 O O O 0 voter interest and participation showed an obvious increase with the emergence of parties 0 1840 political parties became visible in all states Harrison v Van Buren campaign demonstrated many firsts such as the use of image advertising songs parades symbols were used to identify individual candidates and parties 0 Ex log cabin cider 0 used as propaganda sometimes misleading to create an ideal image of the candidate to gain votes now used today in commercials that do not show pt of view on politics ideas but only of the candidate s personality campaign tours the candidate also had to work with the campaign office making public speeches and appearances the candidate had to be able to draw people in even without the committee s help candidates can respond publicly to attack without losing presidency Ex Harrison giving a speech to ridicule his opponent s supporters 14 few presidents after Harrison gave personal campaigning speeches until later on with Douglas William Jennings Bryan and Woodrow Wilson who broke the creed against active presidential campaigning 0 19th century discussion of issues in public by presidential candidate was taboo Ex Lincoln not allowed to speak in presidential campaign even though he often actively debated on issues of slavery with Douglas 0 20th century candidates faulted for failing to discuss issues transformation came slowly when writing platforms were created it became acceptable to reveal personal views normally after selection as party s nominee a speech of thanks and letter of acceptance is released to the press and then the candidate keeps silent until election results Cleveland 1892 started transformation by publicly giving his acceptance of nomination and indicating his opposition to the GOP tariff but did not push on further 1896 William Jennings Bryan started the modern campaign spoke during his notification ceremony to the media hoping to reach the audience through them 0 marked end of parades and campaign songs McKinley s participation also helped est the right of presidential candidates to respond on his own behalf Wilson spoke and won so by 1912 presidential candidate was accepted as an active campaigner and advocate of his own cause 0 with technology candidates would be able to speak directly to the masses Transporting Political Advertising into Living rooms bedrooms and theaters radio film television 0 1928 radio transformed political communication I by 1924 3 million radios in America 193530 million 0 instead of the audience gathering in halls and town squares listeners gathered around in their homes and cars I bridged the Gap between the peoble and its leaders 0 before candidates had to travel thousands of miles to deliver speeches but now one radio chat brought an audience any times more than before I transformed content audience and delivery of political message 0 no more travel to give speeches 0 created national audience no more bribing locals to vote for their home candidate 0 removed the voter from the frenzy of the crowd 20 o conserver on campaign forms of the past I changed standards for effective political oratorical style 0 politicians taught how to speak on radio 0 had to have easy conversational tone and a mode of intimate conversation stump oratory expired FDR s fireside chats had 6 million which grew to 60 million listeners as quality of programming increased I broke hold party newspaper had on their constituents 0 Democrats no longer reading only Democrat news but listening to all 0 newspaper took sides political advertising 1850 only 5 neutral later changed to 48 neutral in 1940 and instead of siding with one party reported all source of entertainment I cons radio had time boundaries expensive When politicians ex Truman couldn t pay for another hour it would be declared that the network wouldn t let him finish the speech 23 o missed out on the inspiration a crowd s reaction could give 0 polls used to gather public s opinions and responses 0 1924 political conventions broadcasted for the first time 0 use of radio limited by the small geographic distribution of existing nations the difficulty in linking a national network the lack of a schedule I 1928 CBS and NBC join together to make national radio broadcasts I before radio citizens spoke with their congressional representatives who symbolized the gov t radio made clear political power was in president I air time 1000Ohour O 0 Democrats in debt so FDR declared that since he was president not candidate he should have free coverage 26 audience no longer gave full attention so songs testimonies shortened messages were used to attract listeners I 1928 1 hour air time 1980 30 seconds long 26 I speeches evolved to greater variety humor tone pace targeting a specific audience asking for audience participationplayed role in reaching people Sect 315 of the Communications Act of 1934 forbade censorship of political broadcasts and equal opportunities should be given to candidates for public office stations only allowed to charge same price for all clients 1959 Supreme Court declared that stations were liable for defamatory statements broadcasted 1940 Hatch Act limited spending of any political committee to 3 million Newsreel and Film TV 0 O O filmed entertainment newsreels introduced in 1911 had 40 million patrons a week 1967 out of business I form of televised political advertising I integrated talents of Hollywood and the distribution network to dispatch movies I extremely realistic can be used to remember history to mockshow politicians documentarieslife storiesexperiences of candidates I audience of over 50 million I Democratic party saw how important the newsreels were and even went to sending out threats to have one made for their candidate Truman pg 33 first used by FDR in 1939 but only an audience of 100000 1st used in presidential races by Truman By the end of his presidency TVs were everywhere under a transcontinental microwave video network I 1952 media consultant technicians who purchased air time checked lighting supervised makeup arranged set and times speech I 1st generation of TV advisors learned politics on the job most did not plan the campaigns I by 1964 the adteams stood on the same footing as the planners I a separate agency just for TV advertising was made starting with Nixon s campaign normally producers were borrowed I during Carter s term Rafshoon his media advisor was given an official position in the White House I role of media advisor rose from no role in campaign planning to an campaign insider responsible for the strategies for all campaign advertising I political media consultingprofession public relations firms opened I factors governing the ads an advisor would create 0 strengthsweaknesses of candidate and opponent what worked in the past nances circumstances such as public s need for assurances nature of news coverage aesthetic inclinations of media advisor 0 advertising used to help candidates define their election 0 Ex Nixon what is peace how to achieve peace 0 sets expectations were the victor s presidency will be assessed 0 reveals the electoral significance of various voting groups audience the relevance the candidates attach to various issues and the extent to which past presidents have lived up to the images they and their opponents have created for themselves in their campaigns 0 just as role of media advisor evolved so did technology political systems style the people Since the United States was founded the political system technology and government has been constantly evolving The right to vote was once a privilege given to only those that had property and believed in a certain faith The campaigning process was formal and the promotion of a party s candidate mainly came from newspapers news that would days to spread to the other states However by the 1900s the political system has been completely tilted sideways Presidential candidates no longer stand in the background as their party committee plans the campaign and instead takes an active role speaking directly to the people of hisher goals and aspirations Technology like the radio television and film making has transformed the old ways of political advertising to something that can only be described as convenient This new technology and the changes to the role of the presidential candidates has been able to unite the country as a whole and helped to continue the democratic process of suffrage for all and equal representation for all However even with as much improvements and changes throughout American history what are some major side effects that have shown already and might show later on How will this affect our current generation and how has it affected the 60s Ex people less active in gov t participation convenience has created conformity and a sense of wellbeing propaganda possible but not always noticed by the public based on history between gov t and tech companies most are forced to obey politicians to keep theirjobs sometimes the truthlies are shown creates distrust in people or a false sense of security CH 2 1952 The Election of a Popular Hero 0 1st armed confrontation of Cold War began Jun 1950 when N Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel into S Korea 0 195052 UN and US troops in Korean War dropped American morale o trouble at home with Truman McCarthy and his search for Communists in gov t Democrats pressuring Reconstruction Finance Corp to make loansTruman deemed Korea Communism and Corruption 39 o Truman doesn t run for 2nd term and instead recommends Stevenson instead of destroying enemy teach them 0 v Eisenhower war hero Supreme Commander of All Allied Expeditionary Forcesled VE day later named Supreme Commander Europe of NATO by Truman not interested in politics and untainted seen to be able to end Korean War honorablyliked by all most popularadmired by publicreceived Republican nomination and chose Nixon as VP secured conviction of Alger Hiss a State Dept official accused of helping Communists 0 Advertising Agency 0 Kudner agency for accounting for Eisenhower 0 BBDampO Carroll Newton responsibilities for overall campaign advertising plan 0 Young and Rubicam advertised for Citizens for Eisenhower Committee to raise money for campaign Stevenson had the Katz agency Eisenhower forecast the future of politics while Stevenson was a throwback to the past I Eisenhower listened to his advisors opinions I Katz was more ofjust a technician for Stevenson I Republicans spent 800000 while Democrats only 77000 on advertising I Republicans outspent the Democrats on radio and TV by three to 2 34 million to 26 million I Democrats had less audience because they chose to have their air time scheduled early and at times people weren t mostly on TV during 0 sought to avoid preemption charges a fee charged for the purchase of time that reimburses the producers of program displaced by a political ad didn t have enough for campaign 0 could have won if reversed o Eisenhower received the most votes ever 33824351 0 Defense and Attack on lke as Soldierstatesman 0 6th general becoming president Washington Jackson Harrison Taylor Grant 0 military heroes drew the most votes 0 generals were leaders similar to a president but without the legislative issues I Eisenhower was Supreme Commander symbolic leader equal to Churchill I leader of WW2 NATO was only a rehearsal for becoming president I would have to continue dealing those same leaders I TV humanized politicians 0 Republicans afraid to mention war as solution to end of warsaid Eisenhower was advocate of peace depicted him as an elderly father of the nation The Case of the Soldierstatesman 0 Democrats believed to be unable to remove the US from a victoryless costly casualityridden war 47 o 67 voters believed Eisenhower would be better able to handle Korea 6 Stevenson 0 Republicans painted a picture of Eisenhower as a leader that had the respect of international leaders could persuade as well as he commands o Stevenson is mocked as a child Thoughts Eisenhower shown as such a good personleader but as the chapter progresses pressure is building and he will fall He says he will go to Koreato do what 49 The people believe because he won so quickly in VE the same will happen upon his arrivalPropaganda He will be in a new position There are limits as to how much he can achieve He is no longer just a military leader but a statesman who must consider Democrats and Republicans Too good to be true The Democratic Attack on the Soldierstatesman tried to break the link to soldier and statesmanbeing a general does not mean it possible to be statesman tried to imply Stevenson had more political experience said lke s role as a soldier had made him ignorant of domestic issues lke s blunders and speeches were made fun of and twisted to imply his political education wasn t enough said a general was not a best choice for hope made an analogy between Hitler and Eisenhower s background soldier turned statesman lke once spoke of how military leadership is separate from civilian leadership 0 ex of Ike as a civilian dug out head of Columbia University began militarizing the school Will lke give orders or take them Democrats believed lke would listen to Taft McCarthy and Jenner for orders Taft had initially won the Wisconsin and Illinois primary elections and chose to later help lke when lke insisted he supported Taft s conservative policies and offered party patronage Taft would get future nominee in exchange 0 necessary for Ike to do Republican votes split bw them twosupporters would either not vote or choose 3rd party candidates Democrats insisted the Republicanssenators would be running the gov tDemocrat votes for Ike drawn away Trojan Horse ad used stomach stored Taft McCarthy and Jenner with Eisenhower on the horse and Nixon leading gt accepting lke meant taking his team also 0 but the public is able to separate Ike from his team not all on his team received nomination for office later on Ads directed to Times Readers 0 New York Times endorsed Ike 0 Democrats go crazy making excuseslke and Times share similar goals The Truman Factor 0 Stevenson linked with Truman who was extremely unpopular o Truman had loyalty of the party regulars who could bring out the traditional Democratic votesdidn t seem concerned about Stevenson as he led the campaign and instead defended his presidency The Old Order Passes o Stevenson similar to Woodrow Wilson a symbol of the past 0 both believed the president was a spokesman and if sense could be talked into the people their cause would be a success preferred stump speech mass audiences where the candidates could be judged talked according to the forbearance of the audience and by content but now out down by a stopwatch kept on changingrewriting last minute on his speech added more as he talked had to speak intimate conversation style refused to show emotions forgot audience included also the uneducated spoke in university language placed great importance on words Ike being changed to fit the public but Stevenson wanted to keep his words and the public created indecision between words used speeches for everything to show clarity of his vision for the county while Republicans made TV more interesting 61 More than one way to convey vision other than long boring speeches O teleprompter intruded bw him and his audience the lights made it difficult to read his speech turned side by side to the teleprompters as though they were the audience Murrow against McCarthy tried to help increase Stevenson s comfort with televised speech and held an interview showing Stevenson s warm side but Stevenson had no patience and didn t improve reluctant candidate selected by party uncomfortable asking for votes refused to exaggerate refused to demonstratepretend he was a fountain of wisdom sought to educate the people gave off a posture of moral superiority messed up by implying that there was corruption in the Truman admin and that he would be the only one who could give a solution Truman tied to him reform governor against corruption Ex Illinois talk sense to the American people interpreted as he was captive to no one other than the American people would speak the truths not always wanted to hear 69 rebut special interests and eliminate corruption claimed Ike would mislead the public Nixon and his secret fund used for personal expenses 0 Nixon was the one who constantly revealed corruption in Washington and in the Democrats 0 Eisenhower gives Nixon the right to choose what to do 0 Republicans spend 75000 for half an hour of TV for Nixon 0 Sept 23 most remembered and watched 489 of audience reached Checkers Speech saved Nixon s spot accusations blamed on Communists discrepancies and numbers slowly changed Ex amount he owed on a house rose from 3000 to 10000 secretary claimed it was a verbal mistake 0 spoke of his family and dog Checkers and their frugal living standards gt he had worked hard for the money with bonds and working The Great Depression helped change a Republican majority to a Democratic majority Democrats used the GD to tell people the Democrats would be the only ones who could make real their promises o Stevenson would keep the nation up if another depression would come 0 listed all the mistakes of the Republicans Hoovervilles foreclosed mortgages busted banks 0 linked Republicans and Ike 0 Eisenhower s televised image however rebutted most of the claims his strong answers character suggested differently from what the Republicans had said 0 Reeves ad team starts spot campaign for Eisenhower TVs in 18 million homes in 12 states that could help lke win if pulled over cost of nearly a million dollars 0 Eisenhower Answers America lke addresses questions from the public 0 underscored problems of corruption Koreasuggested changes to come 0 promised contradicting things increase services out fraud corruption and waste expand SSl lower taxes decrease gov t spending 0 democrat slogan you never had it so good undermined when people complain about taxes inflation 0 ads sometimes changefalsifies the candidate s image I Ex lke didn t want to make any promises but his script insisted he say the words appeared without glasses 0 Reeves helped most importantly by bringing the main focus of the campaign issues Americans were most concerned ofstrangely Communism wasn t one of them 0 Democrats also used spots to conserve money Election Eve Broadcasts o Eisenhower s was in the form of the spots and showed his success by having many people give him their vote 0 the Democrats had simple small talk and a speech that began toward the end and didn t finish o slogans often twisted Ex FDR two good terms deserves another v two good terms deserves a rest 0 used to show central messages of the party 0 Ex 1952 Democrat you never had it so good v it s time for a change 0 Stevenson ironically believed a republican president needed back in power Democrats had become irresponsible in foreign affairs End of lke s 1st term 0 K1C2 eliminated Korean War over Eisenhower s admin untouched by scandal McCarthy discredited 0 heart attack in 1955 ran with Nixon in 1956 reminded of peace in US during his term 0 peace prosperity progress was their slogan o Stevenson ran again aggressively this time v Kefauver and won the Democrat nomination Kefauver chair of Senator Crime Investigating Committee help televised hearings audience of 2030 million won race for VP against JFK o acceptance speech was promise to make freedom real for all Why is it so strange that Stevenson was never able to adapt to the use of film and television Does this imply that there are faults with the creation of the new technology What are some of its consequences Think back to Eisenhower who was constantly portrayed as the ideal leader Is it possible that Eisenhower is not as the public image implies falsifying character new tech wiped out natural communication with audience demanded a new type of language and action source of propaganda


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