Forms of Government
Forms of Government 2330
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2330 at George Washington University taught by Serrato in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics of Western Europe in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Forms of Government Presidential vs Parliamentary Systems Douglas North Institutions are the human devised constraints that structure Huma interaction Formal constraints rules laws and constituents Informal constraints norms behavior conventions With punishments and rewards to keep behavior in check Institutions Representative democracy Responsive Accountability Fundamental questions Whose e preferences should the government be responsive to How to ensure responsiveaccountability Are Parliamentary Systems Better John Gering Tests parliamentary rule on 14 indicators ranging across three policy areas Political development Economic development Human development The greatest difference between these two constitutional molds is that one presidentialism by virtue of greater institutional fragmentation offers greater resistance to change Proximate casual effects of presidentialism and parliamentary electoral behavior legislative behavior interbank relationships cabinet formation the operation of the bureaucracy the policymaking process the organization of interests within civil society and the size of the welfare state But all of these are inconclusive And all have ambiguous effects on good governance Theoretical Debates Ceteris paribus it is understood that parliamentary systems foster stronger political parties More centralized and partyaligned interest groups More centralized decision making process More centralized and hierarchical administrative structures Veto points 0 Separate power introduce an additional veto point into the political process fragmenting politics at all levels A presidential systems fosters a style of politics centered on in del politicians and smaller less established organizational entities Yet none of these have clear cut implication on the effects of good governance Ex do stronger political parties truly foster good governance Good public policy not the interests of ape arty should guide behavior in the ballot box and on the floor of the assembly Ex interest organization Separated power is thus a key feature of interest group pluralism Parliamentarianism is a key feature of corporatism Ex bureaucratic organization Lines of organization nares always more complicated in a separate power system They have to masters their nominal chief executive and the controllers of the budget Ex transparency and accountability Separate powers underline the fact that a direct vote for the chief executive leads to a transparent relationship between elections and electoral outcomes Parliametnarism points out that postelection coalition negotiators affect only those circumstances in which no single part yes able to gain a majority of the legislature Ex information Division of power between exec and legislative in a spate government creates an informationrich environment Each branch has the authority to investigate the other However this also leads to misinformation and smear campaigns Ex electoral accountability Separate powers greater accountability at the local levels Where the local representatives whose positions and legislative record are distinct from their parties and the presidential candidates of the majority Parliamentary greater accountability at the national level For separate power haste idea of accountability is continuous as exercise through multiple bodies each quotchecking and balancingquot the other In a parliamentary system accountability yes seen arising from the concentration of authority in a single set of hands which allows for a direct punish and reward systems by which the voters exact accountability from agents They know where to place the blame ExpoH calchance Political stability in separate power systems To a set of policies But they are also rigid no way to remove a sitting president in between elections other than impeachment Ex institutionalization Parliamentary fosters a highly predictable institutionalized form of politics and Policy making In a presidential systems presidents legislators interest group leaders and even bureaucrats al enjoy a degree of independence form the instruction of which they are nominally members Ex connotation and consensus Con ict is endemic and continual in a presidential system But because a higher threshold of consensus is needed it can be argued that consensus is mandated in a separate power system But no formal objection or opposition in a parliamentary system Clarifying Executive Types Parliamentary system of government in which the executive the prime minister and cabinet collective the government is chosen by and responsible to an elective body the legislature Thus creating a single locus of sovereignty at the national evil Presidential a system where policymaking power is divided between two separately elected bodies the legislature and the president This is all on a continuum Need to calculate history Recent history matters more Dependent Variables Outcome indicators that are measures for the quality of governance in a parliamentary system Five indicators of economic development Number of telephone mainlines per 1000 inhabitants Import duties Trade openness Euromeoney39s country risk ratings Real per capita GDP Three variables capture the level of human development Infant mortality rate Life expectancy Literacy rate Resu s Parliamentary appears to be associated with some aspects of political development though the relationship is not robust across all dependent variables and speci cations Parliamentary seems to be correlated with the World Bank measure of corruption control but only in the educedor model Clear patterns emerge in the area of economic development Better telecommunications infrastructure Lower import duties Greater trade openness Better investment ratings In 23 cases parliamentary is associated with higher levels of human development Long time parliamentary systems have lower levels of infant mortality and longer life expectancy No clear patterns about illiteracy Parliamentary is never associated with bad governance Lljphart Introduction Differences between democracies ie in how the legislative and executive power are distributed Populism Populism Started in the enlightenment A homogenous people versus the elite Ex the Jacobin Theory of communism is a derivative of populist theory It claims to be on no side of the political system Dissatisfaction with the status quo Put blame of the economic status on the upper class Or on refugees Ex Golden Dawn party Ex UK independence party Strong senses of nationalism Tony Blair Third wave labor party Somewhere between the traditional values of social democracy And the liberal policies of the conservative part y So the labor party was less representative of the working class The working class felt disenfranchised But now the labor party is polarized Newly elected Jeremy Corbyn is seen as a populist Going back to the traditional values of the labor party So there are those who liked Tony Blair39s values and are charging against them Interpreting of democracy Participatory pillar gt liberal pillar Emphasizing the importance of the voting over other principals Appeal to the peal Voicing popular grievances systematically ignored by mainstream parties and media Distrust of bureaucrat jargon Against dominant values Personalized leadership Ex Donald Trump Negative connotation s recurrent feature of democracy We have a wave of liberal parties coming in too in other countries Ex SYRIZA in Greece Emerging Parties Populism quotNew politicsquot Started in 19701980 Disenchantment with social and political institutions Beyond leftright cleavage Left women minorities environment Right individual achievement instrumental zing distrust Austria Freedom party Italy Legal Nord France Front NannaD Right wing parties Antiimmigrant Xenophobic Antiau Left wing parties Antiausterity measures Reactions against traditional socialdemocratic parties EU criticism technocrats nancial power or antiEU Governments and Parliaments Majoritarian vs consensus models of government Are you dispersing power or concentrating it Majoritarian vs consensus also deal with how coalitions are formed Second dimension federalist or centralized You are not concentrating the power in one single layer of organizations in a federalist system Q to whom should the government be responsive Majoritarian view the majority of people Clear winners and losers Consensus as many people as possible Share and disperse power Or you divide institutions Q how to limit power Share power dispersed to political actors within the same ignitions Ex proportional electoral systems fostering coalition governments Division of power serrate political institutions Levelsloci of government Decentralization central government transfers part of its power to regional authority Federalism sovereignty constitutionally divided A federal state is a characteristics of a consensual system UK is the most majoritarian systems All democracies have consensual traits Switzerland and Belgium have consensus democracy Are all multinational And federal EU Discourages majoritarian systems And does not abide by such itself EXCEPT with the euro crisis and the refugee crisis The west outvoted the east on immigrant quotas something abnormal for the EU Presidential vs Parliamentary Q how to limit power Executive legislative judiciary Checks and balances Montesquieu and Madison 3 core differences between presidential and parliamentary 1 Term of executive a Presidential xed b Parliamentary dependent on legislature 2 Selection of chief of executive a Presidential popularly elected b Selected by the legislature 3 Nature of executive a Presidential one person b Parliamentary collegial Ex inlay 20082009 Euro crisis Led to a series of government crisis Put a technocrat in power Decentralization Devolution of transfer of parts of the power of the central government to region authorities Federalism Sovereignty is constitutionally divided between AA enteral governments constitutional Austria is a formally federal states but culturally and practically it seems for centralized Spain is a federalist state but is not recognized by the construction as being a federalist state Geranyl and Switzerland are the best impressions of decentralized federal rule Government 5 The executive The main player Executeenforce policies administration and take executive decisions It is the ultimate source of political power BUT subject to legislating and litigations Parliamentary Governments The head of state Procedural nominate dismiss parliament etc Diplomatic functions Symbolic Ex the Belgian monarch calls himself quotThe only Belgianquot The head of government Prime minister chancellor Selected by the majority of the parliament lnvestiture vote Tacit support If party has majority depends only on party discipline If party has plurality depends nonsupport by other parties Can dismiss parliament Will do so in the face of con ict to make people decide From a position of strength strategic timing Form position of weakness The cabinet Collegial body Collective responsibly And con dentiality Anonymity You defend the policy of the party Appointed and dismissed by pomp The ministerial departments Each individual minister Policies in that area The ones running the country In a particular area Not just advisors France Head of state has power As well as the prime minister Can dismiss the legislature Cannot dismiss the pm In charge of foreign policy Presidential vs Parliamentarianism Review Where is the legislative power held With the executive Or with the legislature In a presidential system the president is the only main decision maker A cabinet is only advisory In a parliamentary systems the Prime Minister and the cabinet Cabinet has to back all government actions a collective entity Head of the state separate from head of government By monarchy Elected hybrid systems France reform 2002 enforced presidency If there is no cohabitation the president takes over the PM Indirectly Then you have ministerial departments Head of government Prime minister will be more powerful than a president Because he is the head of the government and the head of the power Control the schedule the legislation and the military etc He appoints the ministers Creates a system of obligation and favors Tendency in Europe to move towards technocratic governments rather than politicians Parliamentary in Consensus vs Majoritarian Majority system UK No input from the opposition party Government controls the agenda Parliamentary work is done on the oor of the chamber Bills go to omitted only after being approved in the chamber Consensus system Germany More parties can contribute to the laws being made Opinions of the opposition party matter more Threshold of votes to pass General actions occurs in committees Political culture is the government is the initiative but the opposition will always have input via committees Second Chamber Lower chamber more powerful Means the chamber that represents the people Not the states BundsTag Upper chamber less powerful Check mechanism Bunds Rat Federal justi cation Representation states particularities are represented in the second chamber The bases of representation are different rst chamber individuas second chamber territories Nonfederal justi cation Extend the process of legislative maturation delay or veto Provide a check and balance of the lower house Origin l linked to monarchies and the political elites Antimajority argument Second chamber generally delays the process of the rst chamber Very partisan When there is a true split in the decision the upper chamber will overrule the lower chamber Interpart mode Ministers and MP5 relationship revolve around parties39 af liations High party discipline Common in majority systems Crossparty mode lnvolves crossparty bargaining in committees Common in consensual democracies