Weekly notes/ terms
Weekly notes/ terms ANTH-18420-700
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheryl Melkey on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH-18420-700 at Kent State University taught by Dana Ormerod in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in History at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Cheryl Melkey Chapter 5 Week 7 Notes Intro to Archaeology 101315 0 The absolute date involves using a specific time frame such as a particular date or span of years in which a discovery was made chronological control 0 Relative dating in archaeology is the practice of averaging a span of time in which a discovery was made this archaeological practice was used mainly before the 1950 s 0 Index fossil concept is the discovery of artifacts that can be linked to each other regarding the time period in history that they were created through their composition location and structure 0 The law of superposition is the principle that in a geographical area that has been undisturbed the age of the layers range from the very bottom which are the oldest to the top layer which is the youngest 0 Time markers are artifacts that are indicators of a specific period of time this is determined by the style in which the artifact is made 0 Seriation is a dating technique that was developed in the nineteenth century to create a timeline that indicates the changes in artifacts as they have evolved over a specific period of time 0 Treering dating is the practice of counting the number of rings in a sample slice of a tree trunk to determine the age of the tree 0 The halflife of 14 C is the amount of time it takes for half of the carbon in an organic sample to decay 5730 years 0 Photosynthetic pathways are the chemical changes that plant life evolve through to metabolize carbon different types of plant life use various ways to achieve this process depending on the location of the plant 0 The reservoir effect represents a challenge to geologists and archaeologists alike this is the phenomena where young plant life or animals absorb old carbon which makes them Cheryl Melkey Chapter 5 Week 7 Notes Intro to Archaeology 101315 seem that they are older than they are if they are carbon dated analyzed to see how much 14 C remains 0 The de Vries effects are the unpredictable changes in the radiocarbon dating discovered by scientists de Vries and Suess in regards to several observations they made while comparing the wood of ancient treesyounger trees and discovering that there were inconsistencies in the amount of 14 C in these two different ages of trees They came to realize through analyzing their data that the uctuations over the last 10000 years have been caused by sunspots intense heat that caused accelerated growth and eventual decay of trees and plant life 0 The introduction of accelerated mass spectrometry AMS has not only made carbon dating more exact but it also requires a much smaller sample for testing 0 Trapped charge dating is a carbon dating method that is used often by archaeologists today it is the process of measuring the electrons that become trapped in an artifact over time 0 A dosimeter is the measurement tool that is used by archaeologists to measure the annual dose of electrons that an artifact would naturally absorb in a specific geographical area Using this tool enables the archaeologist to mathematically configure how many electrons the artifact has in all and then divide that number by how many it received in a year this would allow them to date an artifact very accurately 0 Thermoluminescence TL is a trapped charge dating technique that uses a high degree of heat above 500 degrees C to determine the age of anything composed of minerals such as ceramics and stone artifacts 0 Neanderthals were prehistoric humans that some scientists believe could be direct ancestors to Homo sapiens Cheryl Melkey Chapter 5 Week 7 Notes Intro to Archaeology 101315 0 Optically stimulated luminescence OSL is a trapped charge dating technique used to date the sediment found at a dig site The method is to follow the sediment as it goes through the cycle of blowing in the Wind and being exposed to sunlight Which is referred to as bleaching The measurement is taken by the OSL
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