PSY 315 Week 8 Notes
PSY 315 Week 8 Notes PSY 315
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer Harman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Lecture 19: Social Influence Techniques (3/7/16) Monday, March 21, 2016 5:25 PM • Friendship/Liking: similar to impression management strategies • Used to get people to do things for you o I.e., flattery • Commitment • Consistency-- get people to comply • Foot-in-the-door technique: asking for something small, then after the person has agreed, continue to ask for bigger things gradually • Door-in-the-face: give a very large unreasonable request, then follow with a much more reasonable one that the person will agree to • Bait in the switch • Labeling • Scarcity Principle • "Hard to get" = playing hard to get when dating is a similar technique o You're more valuable and more desired when hard to get • Very desired and sought after; ex. Sal es at stores are advertised as ending early, when they are often extended • Social Proof • Social validation o E.g. door-to-door salesmen, bartenders • Ex. Laugh tracks on sitcom shows that don't really have live audiences -- make viewers believe the joke is funnie r than it really is • Reciprocity • Easy to guilt people by asking them to return the favor you did for them in the past • "Feeling of obligation" • Authority • Pitch the interaction as relationship, rather than dominating = much more likely to get compliance • Identification and Acceptance • Identification: accepts behavior due to relationship, not validity of content • Acceptance, or internalization: view message as truthful or valid, even without the influential source • When do we conform? • Crisis situations: panic mode leads to increased obedience/conformity • When others are experts: increased obedience • When it's important to be accurate o Example: a police line-up for criminal identification • Ex. Radio show "the War of the Worlds" Lecture 20: Social Influence (3/9/16) Monday, March 21, 2016 5:40 PM • War of the Worlds radio show: informational social influence • If you don't know how to act in a social situation, you look around to others to find out how to act • Others give us guidelines/info for how to act • Epidemic Psychogenic Illness (EPI) • Real symptoms with no psychological basis --> usually leads to outbreaks o Illustrates 2 things: • Group norms can be subtle, yet very powerful • Ambiguity (uncertainty)= more susceptibility to conformity • Autokinetic phenomenon: our perception of light makes it look like things move from far away • Study by Muzafer Sherif (1936): the establishment of group norms --> conformity o This is known as informational social influence • As estimates of movement were given over time, the estimates be tween participants got closer together o Public estimate --> norm of group influences the estimate each participant gives • Why else do we conform? • Normative social influence o Norms: explicit or unspoken rules of behavior • Descriptive norms: it's the spoken norm of how you need to act in a given situation-- what people actually do • Injunctive norms: what we should do in theory-- don't always do it § Ex. Writing thank you cards for gifts § Unspoken norm • Solomon Asch (1951) o Social conformity even when you know the group is wrong o Participants often found themselves in an awkward situation • It was obvious the group was wrong = normative social influence • Automatic? • Social contagion/automatic mimicry o Ex. Yawning • Chameleon effect (Chantrand & Bargh, 1999): o Automatic behaviors often mimic behaviors of those around us o Occurs outside of our awareness • Social Impact Theory • Conforming to normative pressure depends on several other things: o Size of the group o Cohesion/group importance o Unanimity-- harder to go against the norm • Other influencing factors • Status (power) • The awareness of norms • Public response • No prior commitment to answer/decision o Therefore we are more persuaded by the group Lecture 21: Conformity (3/11/16) Tuesday, March 22, 2016 5:51 PM • Who conforms? o Personality- easily agreeable or high in agreeableness = persuaded easily o Gender: women are generally more persuadable o Age: as age increases, people are less likely to conform o Culture: Solomon Asch study • Reactions to Conformity o In-class activity about discipline for Re ggie Johnson • This was an experiment with confederates • Others § Deviants (#5) § Mode § Slider (#4) o Lewin's field theory (modified for class activity) • Showed that norms develop over time • "neighborhood of acceptability" is the tolerance of deviance § For example, this is what we did for the deviant who chose #7 punishment *P= Punishment
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