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Date Created: 10/14/15
Chapter 81 Emotional Experience The Feeling Machine Key Words 0 emotion lamesLange theory 0 CannonBard theory 0 twofactor theory What Is Emotion appraisal emotion regulation 0 reappraisal Psychologists use a method known as multidimensional scaling to develop a map of emotional experiences in order to determine the similarities and differences between human emotions The map shows dimensions on which the emotions vary valence determines how positive or negative the experience is arousal determines how active or passive the experience is Research shows that all emotional experiences can be described by their unique coordinates on this twodimensional map Negative valence High arousal o Alarmed Afraid o Tense 0 Angry O Distressed o Annoyed o Frustrated Excited Astonished Aroused Delighted Glad Happy o Miserable o Depressed 0 Sad Bored O Gloomy O O Droopy o Tired Pleased Sa s ed content Serene Calm At ease Relaxed Sleepy Low arousal Positive valence This map suggests that emotional experiences have two essential properties with this we can define emotion as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity The Emotional Body lamesLange theory of emotion states that stimuli trigger activity in the body which in turn produces emotional experiences in the brain In this theory emotional experience is the consequence not the cause of our physiological reactions to objects and events in the world For example you see a bear Your heart would start pounding and your leg muscles would contract then you would experience fear CannonBard theory of emotion claims that stimuli simultaneously trigger activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain Emotions happen quicker than bodily reactions People often have trouble accurately detecting bodily reactions such as increased heart rates If that s the case how can the bodily reactions trigger emotion Environmental events which mimic the same bodily responses do not trigger the corresponding emotional response Why don t people feel fear when they have a fever There aren t enough unique pattern of bodily reactions to account for all the unique emotional experiences Twofactor theory of emotion suggests that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of general physiological arousal Stimuli trigger general physiological arousal whose cause the brain interprets and this interpretation leads to emotional experience Specific a James Lange Experience physuologlcal offear state Specific physiological state b Cannon Bard Expenence of fear c Twofactor Genera Experience physuologlcal of fear arousal Jim luckmmamCeris The Emotional Brain Appraisal is an evaluation of the emotionrelevant aspects of a stimulus The amygdala has a key role in producing emotions such as fear An extremely fast and sensitive threat detector Stimulus is transmitted through the brain simultaneously through two distinct routes 0 fast pathway which goes directly from the thalamus to the amygdala 0 slow pathway which goes from the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala I The cortex takes longer to process information than the amygdala Emotion is part of a primitive brain system that prepares us to react rapidly and on the basis of little information to things that are relevant to our survival and wellbeing The Regulation of Emotion Emotion regulation refers to the strategies people use to in uence their own emotional experience Behavioral regulation strategies involve avoiding situations that trigger unwanted emotions Cognitive regulation strategies involve collecting memories that trigger a desired emotion People don t always know which of these strategies is the most effective People think that suppression which involves hiding the outward signs of an emotion is generally an effective strategy but it isn t In contrast people think that affect labeling or putting the feelings into words doesn t have much impact on their emotions even though it is an effective way to reduce the intensity of emotions One of the best strategies for emotion regulation is reappraisal which is changing one s emotional experience by changing one s perception of a situation 0 Those who reappraise emotions better than others tend to be the most mentally and physically healthy Summary Quiz 81 Emotions can be described by their location on the two dimensions of a b c d motivation and scaling arousal and valence stimulus and reaction pain and pleasure Which theorists claimed that a stimulus simultaneously causes both an emotional experience and a physiological reaction a b c d Cannon and Bard James and Lange Schacter and Singer Kliiver and Bucy Which brain structure is most directly involved in the rapid appraisal of a stimulus as good or bad a b the cortex the hypothalamus c the amygdala d the thalamus The act of changing an emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotioneliciting stimulus is called a deactivation b appraisal c valence d reappraisal Chapter 82 Emotional Communication Msgs wo Wrds Key Words 0 emotional expression universality hypothesis facial feedback hypothesis display rules Introduction An emotional expression is an observable sign of an emotional state Emotions can be shown through our tone of speech the direction in which we look and even how we walk but no part of the body is more emotionally expressive than the face The muscles of the human face can make 46 distinct patterns known as action unitsquot and combinations of different action units are reliably related to specific emotional states 0 When people feel happy their zygomatic major muscles pull up their lip corners while their obicularis oculi muscles crinkle the outside edges of the eyes I Psychologists refer to the resulting expression as Action Units 612 but we call it smiling Communicative Expression Darwin don t we all love Darwin haha published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals where he described his observation that human and nonhuman animals share certain facial and postural expression which he suggested were meant to communicate information about their internal states The Universality of Expression A language only works if everybody speaks the same one which is why Darwin advanced the universality hypothesis which states that all human beings naturally make and understand the same emotional expressions People who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions as those who have 0 Blind people smile when they are happy and 2dayold infants make a disgust facequot when bitter chemicals are put in their mouths People are fairly accurate when judging the emotional expressions of members of other cultures The Cause and Effect of Expression Our emotional experiences cause our emotional expressions It also works the other way around The facial feedback hypothesis states that emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences Facial expressions and emotional sates become strongly associated with each other over time and eventually can bring about each other 0 These effects are not limited to the face People unconsciously mimic other people s body postures and facial expressions People find it difficult to identify another person s emotions when they are unable to experience emotions of their own Deceptive Expression Emotional expressions can communicate our feelings both truthfully and deceptively Our knowledge that it is permissible to show contempt for a peer but not a superior is a display rule which is a norm for the appropriate expression of emotion When people tell lies they speak slower take longer to respond and respond in less detail than they do when telling the truth Liars are less uent less engaging more uncertain tenser and less pleasant than truthtellers People have a strong bias toward believing the sincerity of others In addition they don t know the signs to consider and ignore the signs that show whether someone is lying or telling the truth The most widely used lie detection machine is called a polygraph which measures the physiological responses that are associated with stress which people often feel when they are afraid of being caught in a lie A polygraph can detect lies better than humans but its error rate is still remarkably high 0 For example the interviewer may be viewed as an intimidating superior to the person being tested which can also evoke feelings of fear based on emotional conditioning towards superiors Summary Quiz 82 Which of the following does NOT provide any support for the universality hypothesis a Congenitally blind people make the facial expressions associated with the basic emotions b Infants only days old react to bitter tastes with expressions of disgust c Robots have been engineered to exhibit emotional expressions d Researchers have discovered that isolated people living a Stone Age existence with little contact with the outside world recognize the emotional expressions of Westerners is the idea that emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences a display rule b expressional deception c the universality hypothesis d facial feedback hypothesis Which of the following statements is inaccurate a Certain facial muscles are reliably engaged by sincere facial expressions b Even when people smile bravely to mask disappointment their faces tend to express small bursts of disappointment c Studies show that human lie detection ability is extremely good d Polygraph machines detect lies at a rate better than chance but their error rate is still quite high