Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Ch 12 The Search for Identity dentity A coherent conception of the self made up of goals values and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed Search for identity begins during the teenage years Cognitive development allows them to construct a quottheory of the selfquot Part of a healthy vital process that builds on the achievements of earlier stages and lays the groundwork for coping with the challenges of adulthood Marcia ldentity status Crisis and Commitment ldentity Statuses states of ego development States of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment ldentity Achievement Foreclosure Moratorium ldentity Diffusion Crisis Period of conscious decision making related to identity formation Commitment Personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs ldentity Achievement crisis leading to commitment ldentity status characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis or a period spent exploring alternatives People in this category are more mature and socially competent Foreclosure commitment without crisis ldentity status in which a person who has not spent time considering alternatives in crisis is committed to other people s plans for his or her life Moratorium crisis with no commitment yet ldentity status in which a person is currently considering alternatives in crisis and seems headed for commitment ldentity Diffusion no commitment no crisis ldentity status characterized by the absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives crisis People in this category tend to be unhappy and often lonely Categories but not stages likely to change in any direction Middleaged people looking back typically trace a path from foreclosure to moratorium to identity achievement After late adolescence more and more people are in moratorium or achievement About half of late adolescents remain in foreclosure or diffusion Gender Differences in Identity Formation Much research supports the idea that for women identity and intimacy develop together GHHgan The female sense of self develops not so much through achieving a separate identity as through establishing relationships Girls and women judge themselves on their handling of their responsibilities and on their ability to care for others as well as for themselves Other researchers question whether the paths are different by gender Suggest that individual differences may be more important Few gender differences appear in Marcia s research Studies of selfesteem support Gilligan s view Male selfesteem is linked with striving for individual achievement Femae selfesteem depends more on connections with others Ethnic Factors in ldentity Formation Four ethnic identity statuses Diffuse Done little or no exploration of ethnicity and does not clearly understand the issues involved Forecosed Done little or no exploration of ethnicity but has clear feelings about it Moratorium Begun to explore ethnicity but is confused about what it means Achieved Explored identity and understands and accepts ethnicity Yip Seaton amp Sellers 2006 Studied 940 African American adolescents college students and adults Found evidence for all four identity statuses in each age group 27 of adolescents 47 of college students and 56 of adults were in the achieved group Adoescents were more likely to be in moratorium 42 25 were in foreclosure 6 were diffused Those in achieved moratorium or foreclosure had more positive regard for being African American Participants at any age who were achieved were most likely to view race as central to their identity Three aspects of racialethnic identity Connectedness to one s own racialethnic group Awareness of racism Embedded achievement Belief that academic achievement is a part of group identity Altschu Oyserman amp Bybee 2006 Longitudina study of lowincome minority youth Found all three aspects of identity appear to stabilize and even to decrease slightly by midadolescence Raciaethnic identity may buffer tendencies toward a drop in grades and connection to school during the transition from middle school to high school French Seidman Allen amp Aber 2006 3year longitudinal study of 420 African American Latino American and European American adolescents Looked at two dimensions of ethnic identity Group Esteem Feeling good about one s ethnicity Exporation of the Meaning of Ethnicity Group esteem rose during both early and middle adolescence especially for African and Latino Americans Exporation of the meaning of ethnicity increased only in middle adolescence Girls seem to undergo the process of identity formation earlier than boys Cultural Socialization Parental practices that teach children about their racialethnic heritage and promote cultural practices and cultural pride Tends to strengthen ethnic identity and lead to more positive ethnic identity Sexuality Sexual Identity Achievement of seeing oneself as a sexual being recognizing one s sexual orientation coming to terms with sexual stirrings and forming romantic or sexual attachments Awareness of sexuality is an important aspect of identity formation Biologically driven but expression is partially de ned by culture During the 20th century a major change in sexual attitudes and behavior in industrialized countries brought more widespread acceptance of Premarital sex Homosexuaity Other previously disapproved forms of sexual activity Casual sex with acquaintances has become more common lncreased concerns about sexual risktaking NlU Sample Casual Sex 135 FWB 187 Sexual Orientation and Identity Sexual Orientation Focus of consistent sexual romantic and affectionate interest Present in younger children but becomes important during adolescence Heter05exua Sexual attraction to persons of the other sex H0m05exua Sexual attraction to persons of the same sex Rate in the US ranges from 1 to 21 of people Bisexual Sexual attraction to persons of both sexes SMosher Chandra ampJones 2005 National survey 45 of 1519 year old boys report having had samesex sexual contact 106 of 1519 year old girls report having had samesex sexual contact Only 24 of boys and 77 of girls reported having done so in the past year Reports on the prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality tend to be biased due to the social stigma attached to these sexual orientations Origins of Sexual Orientation Much research on sexual orientation has focused on explaining homosexuality Homosexuality was listed as a mental illness in the DSM un l1973 Removed due to a lack of ndings associating homosexual orientation with emotional or social problems Sexual orientation appears to be at least partly genetic Three stretches of DNA on chromosomes 7 8 and 10 which appear to be involved in male sexual orientation Research with twins indicates nongenetic factors play a part as well Langstrom Rahman Carlostrom amp Lichtenstein 2008 Studied more than 3800 Swedish samesex twin pairs Nonshared environmental factors accounted for about 64 of individual differences in sexual orientation Genes explained about 34 of the variation in men and 18 of the variation in women Shared family in uences accounted for about 16 of the variation in women but had no effect in men Bogaert 2006 Analyzed 905 men and their biological adoptive half or stepsiblings Only signi cant factor in sexual orientation was the number of times a man s mother had borne boys Each older biological brother increased the chance of homosexuality in a brother by 33 May be a cumulative immunelike response to the presence of successive male fetuses in the womb Savic amp Lindstrom 2008 Brains of gay men and straight women are symmetrical Lesbians and straight men have slightly larger right hemispheres In both gays and lesbians connections in the amygdala are typical of the other sex LeVay 1991 Reported a difference in the size of the hypothalamus in heterosexual and gay men Savic Berglund amp Lindstrom 2005 2006 The odor of male sweat activated the thalamus in gay men much as it did in heterosexual women Lesbian women and straight men reacted more positively to female pheromones Homosexual and Bisexual Identity Development Despite increased acceptance of homosexuality in the US many adolescents who openly identify as gay lesbian or bisexual feel isolated May be subject to discrimination or violence May be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation May nd it dif cult to meet and identify potential samesex partners No single route to the development of gay lesbian or bisexual identity and behavior Many experience identity confusion lf unable to establish peer groups that share their orientation they may struggle with the recognition of samesex attractions Sexual Behavior 425 of nevermarried 1519 year olds have had sex 77 of people in the US have had sex by age 20 Roughly the same since the mid19605 Average girl has sex at age 17 boys at 16 14 have had sex by age 15 2005 NlU Sample 31 by 15 516 by 16 735 by 17 941 by 18 98 by 19 African Americans and Latinos tend to begin sexual activity earlier than white youth Start puberty earlier too Teenage boys historically were more likely to be sexually experienced than teenage girls In 2007 48 of 12th grade boys and 57 of 12th grade girs reported being sexually active Sexual RiskTaking Two major concerns Contracting sexually transmitted infections Pregnancy Young people are most at risk when they Start sexual activity early Have multiple partners Do not use contraceptives regularly Have inadequate information about sex Other risk factors include Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities Using drugs Exhibiting antisocial behaviors Associating with deviant peers Eary sexual activity is in uenced by Eary entrance into puberty Poverty Poor school performance Lack of academic and career goals History of sexual abuse or parental neglect Cultural or family patterns of early sexual experience Absence of a father especially early in life Teenagers with close warm relationships with their mother as well as those who perceive their mothers disapprove of such activity are likely to delay sexual activity One very powerful in uence is the perception of peer group norms Onethird of 1517 year olds especially boys said they had experienced pressure to have sex Cuture also plays a part Asian American heterosexual and gay males begin sexual activity later than white African American and Latino males May re ect strong cultural pressures to save sex for marriage or adulthood Percentage of US adolescents who have ever had intercourse has declined Noncoital forms of genital sexual activity is still common Just over half of teenage boys and girls reported having given or received oral sex more than reported vaginal intercourse NlU Sample Oral Sex 639 Ana Sex 77 Use of Contraceptives lncreased since the 1990s Teens are more likely to use contraceptives consistently if they Delay intercourse Discuss contraception before having sex Use more than one method of contraception Best safeguard is regular use of condoms protection from STIs as well as pregnancy About 80 of teens used contraception usually condoms the rst time they had sex In 2007 only 62 of sexually active high school students reported having used condoms the last time they had sex NlU Sample 645 report Always using contraception 187 Often 84 Sometimes 52 Rarely 32 Never 91 use condoms most often 439 use the pull out method 335 use oral contraceptives 168 use Plan B Where Do Teens Get Information about Sex Primarily from friends parents sex education in school and the media Adolescents who talk about sex with older siblings as well as parents are more likely to have positive attitudes toward safer sexual practices Since 1998 sex education programs stressing abstinence have become more common Not shown to delay sexual activity Virginity pledges also have no impact on behavior other than a decrease in the likelihood of taking precautions Programs which discuss abstinence but also discuss STI prevention and safer sexual practices have been found to delay sexual initiation and increase contraceptive use Many teenagers get much of their information from the media Presents a distorted view of sexual activity associates it with fun excitement competition danger or violence but rarely shows the risks Teens exposed to highly sexual television content were twice as likely to experience a pregnancy compared with lower level or no exposure Sexually Transmitted Infections STls Sexually Transmitted Infections STls lnfections and diseases spread by sexual contact Estimated 19 million new STls are diagnosed each year 65 million Americans have an incurable STI Estimated 32 million adolescent girls 1 in 4 aged 1419 in the US has at least one STI Main reasons for STls are Eary sexual activity Multiple highrisk partners Failure to use condoms or use them regularlycorrectly Tendency to have sex with older partners for women Despite being at a higher risk for contracting STls teens perceive their own risk as low STls in adolescent girls are more likely to develop undetected In a single unprotected sexual encounter with an infected partner girls are at a 1 risk of acquiring HIV 30 risk of acquiring genital herpes 50 risk of acquiring gonorrhea STls can also be transmitted through oral sex The most common STI is human papilloma virus HPV Genita warts Leading cause of cervical cancer in women Affects 183 of 1419 year olds Risk is 50 for girls with 3 or more partners Approximately 40 types of HPV virus Vaccine The most common curable STls are chlamydia and gonorrhea lf undetected and untreated can lead to severe health problems like pelvic in ammatory disease in women About 1 in 10 teenage girls and 1 in 5 teenage boys are affected by one of these STIs US lncrease in cases of chlamydia Genital Herpes Simplex Chronic recurring often painful and highly contagious disease ie INCURABLE Can be fatal for those with a de ciency of the immune system or to a newborn infant whose mother has an outbreak when she delivers lncidence has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades Hepatitis B is a prominent STI as well despite a preventative vaccine ln ammatory illness of the liver Trichomoniasis Parasitic infection that may be passed along by moist towels and swimsuits Also common among young people Human Immunode ciency Virus HIV Causes AIDS Transmitted through bodily uids Virus attacks the body s immune system leaving a person vulnerable to a variety of fatal diseases Symptoms include Extreme fatigue Fever Swoen lymph nodes Weight loss Diarrhea Night sweats 41 million new HIV infections each year worldwide Half in people ages 15 to 24 Teenage Pregnancy and Childbearing More than 4 in 10 adolescent girls in the US have been pregnant at least once before age 20 More than half 51 have their babies 14 of teen pregnancies end in miscarriage or stillbirth A decline in teen pregnancy has been accompanied by steady decreases in Eary intercourse Sex with multiple partners lnconsistent contraceptive use In 2004 teen pregnancy fell to 722 per 1000 girls lowest rate since 1976 Birth rates have fallen most sharply among black teenagers by 46 Black and Hispanic girls are still more likely to have babies than white American Indian or Asian American girls More than 90 of pregnant teenagers describe their pregnancies as unintended 50 occur within 6 months of sexual initiation Many teenage parents are themselves products of adolescent pregnancy Outcomes of Teenage Pregnancy Often have poor outcomes Babies are likely to be premature or dangerously small Babies have an increased risk of Birth complications Late fetal neonatal or infant death Health and academic problems Abuse and neglect Developmental disabilities Babies of more af uent teenage mothers also may be at risk 1319 year old white middleclass girls and women were more likely than 2024 year olds to have lowbirthweight babies Even if married well educated and had adequate prenatal care Unwed teenage mothers and their families are likely to suffer nancially Teenage mothers are likely to drop out of school and to have repeated pregnancies Children of teenage mothers tend to Have developmental and academic problems Be depressed Engage in substance abuse and early sexual activity Engage in gang activity Be unemployed Become adolescent parents themselves Poor outcomes are not inevitable Most former adolescent mothers Were not on welfare Many had nished high school and secured steady jobs Did not have large families ls Adolescent Rebellion a Myth Teenage years called a time of adolescent rebellion Adolescent Rebellion Pattern of emotional turmoil that may involve con ict with family alienation from adult society reckless behavior and rejection of adult values Reatively uncommon in Western societies at least among middle class adolescents who are in school Most feel close to and positive about parents share similar opinions and value parents approval Welladjusted adolescents are not ticking time bombs Majority adapt well to life experiences Deeply troubled adolescents tend to come from disrupted families and as adults continue to have unstable family lives and reject cultural norms Adolescents raised in homes with a positive family atmosphere had no serious problems and as adults have solid marriages and lead welladjusted ives Family con ict depression and risky behavior are more common during this time period Famiy con ict has a signi cant impact on emotional distress Particuarly true for girls and teens with foreignborn parents Negative emotions are most intense during early adolescence Changing Time Use and Changing Relationship Amount of time spent with family declines dramatically during the teenage years Not rejection but a response to developmental needs Eary adolescents may retreat to their rooms Great amount of discretionary time Most spent with peers increasingly of the opposite sex Spend more time consuming media From 2004 to 2009 teens increased their media usage from 621 to 738 minutes a day every day Most pronounced in younger teen and African American and Latino adolescents Adolescents and Peers Peer group Source of affection sympathy understanding and moral guidance Place for experimentation Setting for achieving autonomy and independence from parents In childhood most peer interactions are dyadic onetoone Larger groups start forming in middle childhood Adoescents continue to have onetoone friendships but cliques become more important CHque Structured group of friends who do things together A larger type of grouping the crowd does not normally exist before adolescence Crowd Based on reputation image or identity rather than personal interactions Socialy constructed May overlap in membership or change over time Both clique and crowd af liation tend to become looser as adolescence progresses ln uence of peers peaks at 1213 Decines during middle childhood and late adolescence Between 13 and 14 popular adolescents may engage in mildly antisocial behaviors like trying drugs or sneaking into movies without paying Demonstrates independence from parental rules Gardner amp Steinberg 2005 Studied peer in uence on risktaking 306 adolescents collegeage youth and young adults Payed a video game called Chicken In all agegroups risktaking was higher in the company of peers than alone Especialy true of younger participants Romantic Relationships Centra part of most adolescents social worlds With the onset of puberty most heterosexual teens begin to think about and interact more with members of the opposite sex Move from mixed groups or group dates to oneonone romantic relationships Describe these relationships as involving passion and a sense of commitment Romantic relationships become more intense and more intimate across adolescence Eary adolescence how wi relationship affect status in peer group Midadolescence have one exclusive partner for several months to a year and effect on peer status is less important By 16 adolescents interact with and think about romantic partners more than parents friends or siblings Late adolescenceearly adulthood relationships begin to serve the full range of emotional needs but only in relatively longterm relationships Relationships with parents and peers may affect the quality of romantic relationships Parent s own marriage or relationship may serve as a model Peer group forms the context for most romantic relationships and may affect choice of partner and how a relationship develops Dating Violence Significant problem in the United States Physica Partner is hit pinched shoved or kicked Emotional Partner is threatened or verbally abused Sexua Partner is forced to engage in a nonconsensual sex act About 10 of students have been victims of physical dating violence May be higher As many as 3 in 10 adolescents report being verbally or psychologically abused Altogether 1 in 4 adolescents reports verbal physical emotional or sexual abuse from a dating partner each year Teens who are victims of dating violence are more likely to Do poorly in school Engage in risky behaviors Drug and alcohol use Suffer from eating disorders depression and suicide Rates of victimization are similar for boys and girls Boys report slightly higher levels of victimization Girls are much more likely to be victims in cases of severe violence Risk factors include Substance abuse Con ict andor abuse at home Antisocia peers Living in neighborhoods with high crime and drug rates
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