HIST 1010, Week 6 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 6 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 September 22 2015 Han China I The Predecessor The Qin Empire Han China a Emperor Wu the Former Early Han Dynasty amp Pax Sincia b Governing Innovations They Dynastic Cycle amp Imperial Confucianism c The Collapse of the Han Dynasty Today s Question 3 How did various aspects of life reinforce each other in Han China What was the relationship between the economic structure the ideas of Confucianism and the political structure that the Han refined and expanded after inheriting it from the Qin The Qin Empire 0 Very short lived 0 Starting around 300 BCE toward the end of the Warring States period 0 The Qin one of the warring states 0 Started getting stronger o Expanded their territory to gain ore agricultural land I Helps support a larger population and grow the economy 0 Easily taps into the silk road trade based on location 0 Bigger economy able to collect more taxes able to grow their army 0 Din leader declares the Mandate of Heaven and assumes role as quotfirst emperor o Deliberately saying that he is higher than the quotkingsquot of the warring states period 0 Tying himself back to older history I First Emperor standardizes currency I Standardizes the script 0 Din Bureaucratic Structure 0 Entire empire is divided into commanderies which are then subdivided into countries 0 Each commandery had a civilian and military governor who answered to an imperial inspector who then reported directly back to the emperor o Countylevel officials were also centrally appointed and paid by the emperor o All officials could be fired by the emperor at will 0 Aristocratic families had to live in the capital so that the emperor could keep an eye on them to make sure they were not conspiring against him 0 Terracotta Army Burial Goods of the Qin First Empire 0 Soldiers were not massproduced each is distinct and handcarved o All were painted originally o Burial showcased his power I At its peak 700000 workers were working on it I Highlights how central the military was Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 o The Qin First Emperor uses the idea of legalism o Developed several centuries earlier I Society should be governed by inflexible rules that were written down I Punishment should be severe and should be handed out equally regardless of status or rank o In every city groups of 10 to 15 families were grouped together and the responsibility of reporting wrongdoings and rulebreaking of others was the duty of other members of the group o If it was not reported all of the group was punished I Loyalty is to the state is above all others even family 0 Censorship and the burning of books I Because the emperor has set the rules I Everything but scientific manuals was burned o No talk of morality with the First Emperor 0 When he dies the Qin Empire falls apart 0 210 BCE o In less than a decade Han Empire comes to power Han China 0 Revive the bureaucratic structure and use it themselves 0 Takes a lot of people to stack the structure 130000 people working just in the government not even the imperial capital I All men required to pay taxes I Required to register with local officials for recordkeeping I Required to serve in the army 0 Emperor Wu ruled 14087 BCE Ruler during Pax Sincia Chinese peace 0 A time of tremendous peace and prosperity for the empire 0 Empire is expanding economy is growing 0 Becoming even more closely tied into the Silk Road I As the land expands the Han station troops in the new territory along the new land along Silk Road I Encouraging soldiers to move families out there with them 0 Daily Life for Ordinary People 0 Especially in urban places strict sexual segregation 0 Women and children expected to stay out of the public part of the house I The home was the center of Han town life 0 Entertainment musicians etc made house calls I If a woman s husband was away from town she could take over and run things in his absence it was expected that she did so 0 quotDeputy husbands 0 Women had to be literate and well educated 0 Not universal female literacy among the elite but it was pretty high Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 o The majority of women were not literate but there was less sexual segregation I More likely to earn wages 0 Between elite and peasants the scholar officials I Scribes and midlevel bureaucrats that staff the governing hierarchy I Run the large network of schools that get created I Had to be educated in the ways of a scholar if they wanted to participate in government 0 Classical Confucian education if you wanted to move up 0 Han Innovations in Governance 0 Dynastic cycle method by which leadership of the Han Empire passed down Widowed empress would choose a new member of the Liu clan to take over as emperor when her husband died Created image of one consistent empire even when the rule jumped around within the clan I Enabled people to see the empire as one continuous entity I Created a sense of coherence and cohesion o A way of talking about power and how it is handed down 0 Imperial Confucianism Leaders must provide for their people and be virtuous in order to be secure in their ruler But they can and should also use punishment and force to maintain their rule is necessary I The Han embrace Confucian beliefs 0 Up to the ruler to provide for the people o If the ruler is not doing that he will quotnaturally be endangered I Virtue leads to the support of the people I Han leaders took a little bit of legalism and mixed it into this belief o A strict code of right and wrong which if violated could lead to strict punishment I Helps create a common culture 0 The Collapse of the Han Dynasty 0 Yellow River floods huge areas and wipes out farmlands and towns o By 180 BCE Han Empire falls apart Terms and WrapUp o Dynastic cycle economic growth Scholar officials government structure bureaucracy o How did various aspects of life reinforce each other in Han China What was the relationship between the economic structure the ideas of Confucianism and the political structure that the Han refined and expanded after inheriting it from the Qin September 24 2015 Rome Republic to Empire Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 I The Roman Republic a Structure and Role of the Military b Structures of Governance in the Republic II The Roman Empire a Holding the Empire Together b The Role of Towns c Daily Life and the Paterfamilias Han and Rome Compared 0 Size similar both in terms of population and land covered 0 Rome encompassing geographically noncontiguous land with many cultural backgrounds although many were Hellenized Han empire made up of contiguous land and a common culture from the start because its building on earlier empires 0 Roman Empire longerlived 0 Han from 206 BCE220 CE 0 Rome from 265 BCE time of control of whole Italian peninsula to 476 CE time when last western emperor resigns Today s Question 0 What were the mechanisms that Roman leaders used to keep power and hold the empire together How did these change or stay the same in the transition from republic to empire How did they affect the daily life of people living in the empire The Roman Republic 0 Rome is a Hellenized society 0 The Etruscans to the north are constantly having to fight off attacks from the north 0 Successful infighting off northern invaders ultimately 0 Because they had to fight so much to maintain their northern border the Etruscans weaken and give way for the Romans to build power 0 Structure and Role of the Military 0 Military is the key to Rome s success and power 0 Always an empire that is based largely and almost exclusively on military structure 0 Resources are poured into equipping the army 0 Once Rome has conquered a region the main thing the Roman government demands from the newly conquered people is men for the army I Means that even at the end of battle the army is able to grow and be strengthened I How do you keep the people in line 0 The Roman army develops incredibly strict discipline and harsh punishments for even minor rulebreaking o Execution for not following a minor order 0 Roman army was so brutal not nice guys not a fun place Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 0 When they defeat Carthage they kill all the men enslave all the women and children and level the city not nice guys I The quotWar Ethos a sense of really deep loyalty to the military and growing the empire on the behalf of Rome 0 Touch a large percentage of the Roman population and conquered lands 0 About 60 of the Roman male population was drafted into the army at age 17 where they would serve a minimum of 7 years 0 Filtering out into civilian culture so many veterans in daily life 0 Explains why in Rome itself large fights and gladiator battles were so popular and common I Empire grows very rapidly 0 Structures of Governance in the Republic o The Republic is governing the Empire 0 Cincinnatus Semimythic Roman republican leader I Important Roman general I Legend communicates the ideals that they had for civilian leadership during the Republican period I Cincinnatus s sense of duty to Rome wins out over his love of his home 0 Isn t seeking power and glory but duty makes him do it o Gives up power and goes back to his farm 0 Valuing duty to Rome theoretically valuing some level of humility and valuing willingly giving up power and being able to walk away to let someone else have a turn 0 Structure of Roman Republican Government I Assemblies elected by male citizens not all men votes weighted so that elites could if they voted as a block carry the vote without nonelites assembly members not paid and had to spend their own money campaigning o Varying degree of power 0 Real power rested with the consuls I Consuls Leaders of the Roman Republic Always two at a time each with veto power over the other Had to have held other political offices and be 42 years old to be eligible to consul election elected by all male citizens 0 One year terms I Senate advisory body made up of former consuls military leaders and other elite men Appointed not elected o Conquered people were often enslaved I Chattel slaves grew major crops 0 Wheat 0 Grapes o Olives I Really hard for farmers to compete with plantations of slaves o Instability with slave revolts etc I Rome falls into about a halfcentury of civil war Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 6 I Civil wars subside and structure of government goes with it o Create a new way of holding the empire together and start to build a bureaucracy 0 Have a very welldeveloped legal system put into place I Written laws I Punishments defined I Uniform laws I Interpretation of laws and practice by lawyers o The Roman Empire is really built on a network of towns and townlevel bureaucracies really hold the show together 0 Case Study town of PrusaI capital of Bithynia and Pontus 0 Town governed by appointed council of local elites and elected assembly All property owning men could vote for assembly members but candidates were selected by the councH Assembly was responsible for paying and staffing the police force maintaining the sewer system and the roads collection of annuallydue taxes for Rome regulating private construction supplying fuel for the public baths and ensuring a steady supply of grain to keep bread affordable Assembly members also expected to use their own personal money to provide for festivals and other public entertainments 0 Social Hierarchies and Daily Life 0 Pateljamilias as head of family obligated to provide for and protect all dependents from wife to children to slaves Works as an analogy for every level of Roman society Formalized in patronclient relationship elite men were expected to serve as patrons for less welloff people in their towns and provide them with food entertainment and sometimes education for their children Terms and WrapUp o Republic Military Network of Towns Paten amilias o What were the mechanisms that Roman leaders used to keep power and hold the empire together How did these change or stay the same in the transition from republic to empire How did they affect the daily life of people living in the empire
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