IT Unit 4 Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexus Hill on Tuesday March 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Clayton State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 03/22/16
Unit 4 Information Technology NOTES Web Overview 0 A Web site typically contains a collection of related information organized and formatted so it can be accessed using a browser 0 A Web server is an Intemet based computer that stores Web site content and accepts requests from browsers 0 A Web page is based on an HTML source document that is stored as a file on a Web server Hyper Links 0 Web pages are connected by hypertext links commonly referred to simply as links 0 Links are typically indicated by the following underlined or colored text a photo button tab or object 0 Web pages have unidirectional links Document A links to Document B but not Vise versa 0 Bidirectional links connect two documents using a twoway link that can be followed from either document URL 0 Every Web page has a unique address called a URL Uniform Resource Locator pronounced you are ELL 0 Many URLs are long and complex this can be a problem 0 Several services such as Bitly and Goo gl create short URLs Browser Basics 0 The essential elements of a browser include An entry area for URLs and searches Navigation controls a refresh button a home button a settings menu and a display area Customization 0 Predictive services look ahead and anticipate what you might do when searching the Web they also fill in form data based on entries you ve made before such as your email address and phone number 0 Bookmarks or Favorites as they are called in IE link to pages that you use frequently 0 Browser tabs allow your browser to queue up multiple Web pages so that you can easily switch between them Browser Cache 0 When your browser fetches pages and graphics to form a Web page it stores that material on your device in temporary files referred to as a browser cache Web cache or browser history 0 Browsers also contain a History List which saves all the sites you visit and puts them in a list format you can revisit them faster 0 Browsers today include Private browsing mode so that your activity see not recorded and sites visited are not saved to your history list Plugins and Extensions 0 A plugin is a program that extends a browser s ability to work with file formats Ex Abode Flash Player Quick Time Player and Java 0 A browser extension adds features to a browser Ex Ad Block or Google tool bar HTML Basics 0 HTML is called a markup language because authors mark up documents by inserting special instructions called HTML tags that specify how the document should appear when displayed in a browser window 0 HTML tags are incorporated into an HTML document which is similar to a word processing file but has an htm or html extension 0 An HTML document is sometimes referred to as a source document because it is the source of the HTML tags used to construct a Web page HTML conversion utility creates an HTML document from a conventional document spreadsheet or other textbased file Online HTML editor a templatelike tool provided by most Web hosting companies Locally installed HTML editor offers professional features for managing extensive corporate Web sites others are geared toward creating smaller personal Web sites Text editor with these tools you start from scratch with a blank page and enter HTML codes along with the text that you want for your Web Page 0 The framework for an HTML document consists of two sections the head and the body C88 C55 stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is a set of detailed style specifications for an HTML document Inline style sheets can be intermixed with an HTML doc the use of inline CSS is avoided by professional designers Internal included with the header of an HTML doc places formatting elements where they can be edited External style rules are placed in a separate file with a css extension for Web sites with more than one page an external CSS is the recommended approach Dynamic Web Pages Using HTML and CSS Web designers can create a static Web page that displays the same information regardless of who accesses it A dynamic Web page displays customized content in response to keyboard or mouse actions or based on information supplied directly or indirectly by the person Viewing the page Dynamic elements can be incorporated in Web pages with the addition of instructions called scripts written with scripting languages such as J avaScript Site Creation The steps for establishing a Web site include 1 Selecting a hosting serVice 2 Choosing a domain 3 Posting Web pages 4 Testing pages in various browsers HTTP Basics 0 HTTP is a communication protocol that works with TCPIP to get the elements for Web pages to a local browser 0 A set of commands called HTTP methods help your browser communicate with Web servers 0 An HTTP session is a sequence of transactions most commonly used to request data from a Web server and return the files needed to display a Web page in a browser window 0 Because the server does not remember its state from one session to the next HTTP is called a stateless protocol Cookies 0 A cookie technically an HTTP cookie is a small chunk of data generated by a Web server and stored as a text file in memory or on disk 0 Session cookies cookies stored in memory and deleted when the browser is closed 0 Persistent cookies cookies that are stored on a device after a session ends some are programmed to time out after a designated date 0 A firstparty cookie is set by the domain that hosts a Web page 0 A thirdparty cookie is set by a site other than the one you connected to Search Engine Basics 0 A Web search engine commonly referred to simply as a search engine is a computer program designed to help people locate information on the Web by formulating simple queries consisting of one or more words called keywords or search terms A search engine contains four components Web crawler combs the Web to gather data that s representative of the contents of Web pages Indexer processes the information gathered by the crawler into a list of keywords and URLs stored in a database Database stores billions of indeX references to Web pages Query processor allows you to access the database by entering search terms and then produces a list of Web pages that contain content relevant to your query
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