Week 6 Notes (Chapters 7, 8)
Week 6 Notes (Chapters 7, 8) Bio 1510
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Chapter 7 cont Electron Transport Chain a series of membraneassociated proteins in the innermito membrane that transfer e s in and out of the innermito membrane 0 000 O O 0 Last stage of cellular respiration Occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane e donated from NADH oxidized to NAD and FADH2 oxidized to FAD H ions are transported between mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space with help of membraneassociated proteins and e s 3 membrane proteins I NADH dehydrogenase I BC1 complex 0 BC1 complex uses energy from e to move H down concentration gradient I Cytochrome oxidase complex 2 mobile electron carriers I Ubiquinone carries H between concentration gradient 0 Doesn t only receive e from 1 but also FADH2 donates e to ubiquinon FADH originates ONLY FROM KREBS CYCLE has the enzyme to reduce FAD gt FADH2 H pumps move H ions up concentration gradient to create H gradient needed for ATP synthase to work chemiosmosis Chemiosmosis ETC needed for oxidative phosphrylation produces more ATP a way of making ATP as well as substrate level phosphorylation doesn t make as much ATP to happen As e move from one molecule to the other in the ETC they lose energy NADH has high energy es while O2 receives lowenergy es Glycolysis Catabolic exergonic reaction 0 O O O Converts 1 6C glucose to 2 3C pyruvates Occurs in the cytoplasm 2 ATP are produced by substrate phosphorylation I 4 ATP produced 2 ATP consumed 2 ATP 2 NADH produced when reduced from 2 NAD molecules I NADH goes to ETC next where it donates e to NADH dehydrogenase Beginning of Glycolysis Middle of Glycolysis End of Glycolysis o What Happens with Pyruvate with Oxygen o Pyruvate Oxidation when Pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA with the presence of O2 0 Second step of cellular respiration o What Happens with Pyruvate without Oxygen o Glycolysis is then followed by fermentation in eukaryotes I Fermentation the process of regenerating NAD in absence of O2 I Main goal to regenerate NAD so glycolysis can continue making a total of 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation o Occurs in the cytoplasm o 2 types of fermentation I Lactic acid fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of muscle cells after severeextended exercise 0 NADH gt oxidized gt NAD o Pyruvate gt reduced gt lactate lactic acid I EthanolAlcohol fermentation occurs in cytoplasm of yeast unicellular fungi when they run out of O2 0 Pyruvate gt decarboxylated gt acetaldehyde gt reduced gt ethanol alcohol 0 Decarboxylation when 10 is lost in the form of CO2 o NADH gt oxidized gt NAD o 12 concentration of alcohol kills yeast very toxic environment for them 0 Pyruvate Oxidation occurs in mitochondrial matrix 0 2nd step of cell respiration o 2 BC pyruvates are decarboxylated oxidized to 2 acetyl 00A 20 each which enter the Krebs cycle 0 2 NAD reduced to 2 NADH I Pyruvate gt oxidized gt Acetyl CoA with pyruvate dehydrogenase I NAD gt reduced gt NADH 0 Basic Reaction Formula I 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD 2 00A gt 2 AcetylCoA 2 NADH 2002 2 H o The KrebsCitric Acid Cycle exergonic reaction 0 3rd step of cellular respiration o 3 segments of cycle I Segment A AcetylCoA gt citrate with citrate synthetase o Citrate synthetase found in mito matrix I Segment B Citrate undergoes series of reactions to turn into 4C Succinate o 2 C02 lost 2 NADH produced from NAD 0 ATP produced from CoA group exergonic reaction as a result from substratelevel phosphorylation I Segment C Two processes 0 FAD gt oxidized gt FADH2 with succinate dehydrogenase o NAD gt reduced gt NADH with malate dehydrogenase 0 Both succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase produced in the mitochondrial matrix 0 ONLY SEGMENT THAT PRODUCES FADH2 o For each AcetylCoA I 2 CO2 released I 3 NAD reduced to 3 NADH I 1 FAD reduced to1 FADH2 o NADH and FADH2 are both e carriers to ETC 0 NADH 2e and 1 H o FADH1 2e and 2 H I 1 ATP substrate level phosphorylation o 2 Acetyl CoA 4 CO2 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP I Because of 2 AcetylCoA from pyruvate oxidation Krebs must turn TWICE once for each Acetyl CoA 0 Summary of Aerobic Respiration o CellularAerobic respiration presence of 02 o Anaerobic respiration absence of 02 I Used by some prokaryotes 0 Use acetyl some bacteriaarchaeans 0 Instead of pyruvateacetaldehyde they use CO2 SO4quot2 sulfate N03 Nitrate lnorganic metals ie FeHg as a final e acceptor o Obligate anaerobes organisms that carry out anaerobic respiration only I Methonogin anaerobic arcaheans that use CO2 as final e acceptor 0 CO2 gt reduced gt CH4 methane o Facultative anaerobies carry out cellular respiration when 02 is present fermentation in absence of CO2 I Muscle cells and yeast are facultatve anaerobes O 0 Some anaerobic bacteria use sulfate as final e acceptor I Sulfate gt reduced gt Hydrogen Sulfide H2S Basically All Cellular Respiration Systems 1 Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm I l glucouse gt 2 pyruvates I 2 ATP by substratelevel phosphorylation I 2 NADH I Catabolic exergonic I 2 pyruvate travel to mito matrix to be turned to 2 acetylCoA in 2 Pyruvate oxidation occurs in mito matrix I 2 CO2 and 2 NADH produced as well I 2 Acetyl CoA cause 3 Krebs Cycle occurs in mito matrix I Turns twice once for each acetyl CoA to produce 4 CO2 2 ATP made with substrate phosphorylation 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 also produced CO2 only produced in Seg B Exergonic reaction I NADH from Pyruvate Oxidation and Krebs goes to 4 ETC occurs in inner mito membrane in eukaryotes o NADH donates its e to 1St H pump NADH dehydrogenase o NADH dehydrogenase uses e energy to move H from mito matrix gt inter membrane space against gradient I e passed on to ubiquinone Q 1St mobile electron carrier receives e from NADH and FADH2 and delivers e to 2nd H pump bc1 complex 0 Uses e energy to move H ions from mito matrix gt intermembrane space up gradient I Donates e to cytochrome C 2nd mobile e carrier and delivers e to cytochrome oxidase complex 3rd H pump 0 Uses e to move H ions from mito matrix gt intermembrane space up gradient 0 Donates e to O2 combines with H ions gt reduced to H20 0 O2 final e acceptor I Glucose oxidized to CO2 Overall Look at ATP Production Hypothetical An Overall Look on ATP Production Compote The MCGEBWHIN Compenles Inc Permisslon requlreo for reproduction or display Substrate level phosphorylation t NADH 3 ATP chemiosmosis because of 3 H pumps 2 fNAJiJHE r C39hemioemosis Pyruuate oxidation 2 VI Substrate level phosphorylation Krebs Cycle a frgAtoHi t FADHE 2 ATP donates e to last 2 H pumps bcl complex and cytochrome oxidase complex Gllle mmsmosls l Only Krebs 39 produces I 2 ATP used to transport Total net ATP yield 38 1E NADH from cytoplasm i 35 iiin E Uikaryoitesj mitochondria 0 Summary of ATP Production Actual Summary of ATP Production by Aerobic Respiration 4 ATP via substratelevel phosphorylation 25 ATP 25 x 10 NADH 2 NADH in glycolysis 2 NADH in pyruvate oxidation 6 in Krebs Cycle 3 ATP 15 x 2 FADl lg 2 ATP for transport of glycolytic NA DH 30 ATP in eukaryotes 32 in prokaryotes 9 extra because they don39t have mitochondria 39 NADl l electrons activate three proton pumps in the electron transport chain 39 25 ATP generated per molecule of NADH FADl lz electrons activate two proton pumps in the electron transport chain 39 15 ATP generated per molecule of FADl lg these are all ATP numbers 0 Anaerobic Respiration 0 Without 02 as final e acceptor eukaryotic cells rely on glycolysis to generate 2 ATP I Without 02 fermentation is followed by glycolysis instead of pyruvate oxidation 0 Fermentation reduces organic molecules to regenerate NAD I Acetaldehyde yeast pyruvate animals organic molecules that are e acceptors Controlling Aerobic Respiration o In glycolysis phosphofructokinase is allosterically inhibited by ATP andor citrate I Phosphofructokinase used in glycolysis needed to convert Fructose 6P gt Fructose 16 biP this reaction needed to make ATP If enough ATP is made gt ATP binds to phosphofructokinase allosteric site gt undergoes conformational change alters active site gt Fructose 6P can no longer bind to phosphofructokinase As a result no Fructose 16 biP is made and no ATP is made Negative feedback reaction ATP is noncompetitive inhibitor binds to allosteric site 0 ln pyruvate oxidation pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by high levels of NADH 0 Why Do We Need to Eat Proteins and Fats o Deamination loses amino group I Needs to occur in order to contribute to aerobic respiration o Betaoxidationfatty acidoxidation I Occurs in mitochondrial matrix I Fatty acids used to produce acetylCoA NADH and FADH2 Nucleic acids digested in small intestine with nucleases like DNAse and RNAse Proteins digested in the stomach pepsin and small intestine trypsin Pepsin and trypsin are proteases Fats digested in small intestine with lipases Polysaccharides digested in mouth salivary amylase and in small intestine with following I Pancreatic amylase produced in pancreas but used in small intestine O O O O I Sucrase I Lactase I Maltase 0 Why do CarbRich Diets Not work I When polysaccharides are eaten they are broken down into glucose gt pyruvate gt Acetyl CoA and reduced in the Krebs Cycle I Excess AcetylCoA is converted back into fatty acids combine with glycerol and make us gain weight Why Do We Need to Eat Proteins and Farts Conmgnt Tn lns 39 dismay Macmmolecwle degradation Nucleic acids Proteins Polysaccharides Lipids and fats r l 39 Nucl asequotr Pepsinl Wpsin Seen es i 59 cell building blocks prote s l Nucleotides LEE Amino acids Sugars Fatty acids Glycero Glycolysis quot 39 I I 39 Deamination b l y oxndatron Loses a min 0 grou ps NHS El WU Fl Dxidative respiration Ultimate metabolic products NI 1 I I U 02 Chapter 8 Photosynthesis o Photosynthesis A series of chemical reactions involved in making glucose from sunlight o How are Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration Related 0 Cellular respiration catabolic exergonic occurs in mitochondria o Photosynthesis anabolic endergonic occurs in chloroplast o Autotrophsphotoautotrophs organisms that carry out photosynthesis to make their own food I Auto self troph energy I Cyanobacteria photosynthesis via chlorophyll I Algae some protists o Heterotrophs organisms that eat food made by something else I Hetero other I Animals humans included I Some protistsbacteria I Fungi o All living organisms carry out cellular respiration both autoheterotrophs I You can t live without that ATP 0 Only autotrophs conduct photosynthesis 0 Leaf Structure 0 Epidermis plant skin protects the leaf I Upper and lower epidermis Stomata sing stoma involved in gas exchange I COZ enters OZ and H20 leaves I Guard cells openclose stomata Cuticle waxy layer that reduces water loss Leaves covered in trichomes I Prevents leaves from being eaten by herbivores o Mesophyll have many chloroplast cells within I Participates in photosynthesis o Majority of plants photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll cells I Bundle sheath cells don t have many chloroplasts o Chloroplast Structure 0 Inner membrane filled with stroma Stroma ATP is used Granum increases surface area in chloroplast Thylakoid membrane contains ATP synthase to make ATP I Thylakoid membrane stroma where photosynthesis occurs 0 An Overall Look at Photosynthesis 0 Light dependent reaction exergonic I Occurs in thylakoid membrane I Only occur when sun is present exergonic 0 000 I NADPH reduced to NADP o Carries 2e and H gt Calvin Cycle 0 H20 oxidized to OZ 0 NADPH reduced to NADP 0 Light independent reaction endergonic I Occurs in the stroma inside thylakoid membrane I Doesn t require sunlight dark reaction I Calvin Cycle occurs withwithout sunlight I COZ reduced to glucose 0 Glucose not a direct product of Calvin Cycle 0 G3P is a PRODUCT gt eventually used to make other sugars o Thylakoid membrane covered in two layers of phospholipids o How Do Plants Capture Energy from the Sun 0 main synthetic pigment that absorbs violetblue red light but reflects green o accessory pigment that absorbs more blue a little bit of orange red light but reflects green 0 Carotenoids accessory pigments that absorb mostly blue and green but reflect yellow orange and red light I Chlorophyll ab green pigments I Carotenoids redorangeyellow pigments o Pigment light absorbing molecules that allow photosynthetic organisms to capture different wavelengths of sunlight We only see reflected light that s why leaves look green to us Accessory pigments not directly involved in photosynthesis I Needed because they capture the light used in photosynthesis o In spring days are longer with more sun leaves are green chlorophyll gt carotenoids o In autumn days become shorter and not enough sun leaves are orange because chlorophyll breaks down carotenoids start to reveal more chlorophyll lt carotenoids 0 When leaves lose all their chlorophyll they fall off 0 Photosystem o Consist of pigments and proteins occur on the thylakoid membrane 0 A chlorophyll molecules of antenna complex captures a photon from sunlight and transfers energy to the reaction center chlorophyll a molecule I Antenna complex consists of chlorophyll b molecules carotenoids and proteins 0 Chloro a main 0 Chloro b carotenoid accessory 0 An electron of the reaction center becomes excited moving to higher energy level sounds familiar Energy from sun passed around from one pigment cell to another When energy is recieved e become excited and are accepted to e acceptor molecules 0 Reaction center chlorophyll a molecules donates their es I Chlorophyll b molecules in antenna complex don t donate only pass sun energy around 0 How are the Electrons in the Reaction Center Replenished 0 Reaction center green has low energy e s gt receives sunlight gt gets excited and moves into higher energy levels gt energy from e used to make ATP and NADPH o Donates highenergy e to e acceptors o Photosystem II and Photosystem ll 0 Both absorb sunlight thousands found in the thylakoid membranes 0 The reaction center chlorophyll of absorbs light with wavelength of o The reaction center chlorophyll of absorbs light with wavelength of o Photosystem I vs Photosystem II o I uses high energy e s make NADPH I uses high energy e s make ATP 0 I replaces lost e s by e s from Pll I replaces lost e s by splittingoxidizing H20 I When H20 splitoxidized gt releases 2H 2e and O
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