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Ch. 6 notes

by: kglance

Ch. 6 notes 120

ASTR 120 The Solar System
A. Constantin

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One week of notes for chapter 6, from lecture as well as textbook. Covers entire chapter
ASTR 120 The Solar System
A. Constantin
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by kglance on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 120 at James Madison University taught by A. Constantin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see ASTR 120 The Solar System in Astronomy at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Ch 6 Telescopes 2 basic designs of telescopes l Refracting Focuses light with lenses Need to be very long with large heavy lenses Different wavelengths will bend light at different angles Chromatic aberrations 2 Re ecting Focuses light with mirrors Can have much greater diameters Light doesn t move through a phase change I no chromatic aberration Many designs are possible I modern telescopes Advantages Mirrors can be made much larger than possible with solid glass lenses No chromatic aberration the light does not move through a phase change Less light is lost Spherical aberration where different parts of a spherical mirror will re ect light to slightly different points Photometers Measure number of photons Cameras Image capture Nowadays done with CCD Charged Coupled Devices Filters are used to select wavelength ranges of interest Spectrographs Use prismsdiffraction gratingsslitsfiber optics to split light into component spectra with the desired resolution Imaging Astronomical detectors can record forms of light our eyes can t see Color is sometimes used to represent different energies of nonvisible light Highest energy Xrays blue Medium green Lowest red Earth s atmosphere affects groundbased observations The best groundbased sites for observing Calm not too windy High less atmosphere to see through Dark far from city lights Dry few cloudy nights Why do we put telescopes into space Transmission in Atmosphere Only radio and visible light pass easily through Earth s atmosphere We need telescopes in space to observe other forms of lights Astronomers turn to other wavelengths to probe different physical regimes different type Temp of gas in our Galaxy XRay Telescopes Focusing of Xrays requires special mirrors Mirrors are arranges to focus Xray photons through grazing bounces off the surface Definitions Focus focal point the point at which rays of light that were initially parallel converge Focal plane the place where an image created by a lens or mirror is in focus Exposure time the amount of time during which light is collected to make a single image Pixel an individual picture element on a CCD Lightcollecting area the area of the primary mirror or lens that collects light in a telescope Angular resolution the smallest angular separation that 2 pointlike objects can have and still be seen as distinct points of light Diffraction limit the angular resolution that a telescope could achieve if it were limited only by the interference of light waves it is smaller for larger telescopes Spectrograph an instrument used to record spectra Spectral resolution the degree of detail that can be seen in a spectrum the higher the spectral resolution the more detail we can see Light curve a graph of an object s intensity against time Light pollution humanmade light that hinders astronomical observations Turbulence rapid and random motion Adaptive optics a technique in which telescope mirrors ex rapidly to compensate for the bending of starlight caused by atmospheric turbulence Grazing incidence re ections in which light grazes a mirror surface and is de ected at a small angle commonly used to focus highenergy UV light and Xrays Interferometry a telescopic technique in which two or more telescopes are used in tandem to produce much better angular resolution than the telescopes could achieve individually


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