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Date Created: 10/14/15
Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer First day of class 0 Reviewed syllabus No notes 0 What is Anthropology September 9 2015 September 112015 0 Study of the human condition across time and space Human condition the qualities that make us quothumanquot 0 Holistic Perspective taking into account all possible elds of study when addressing a question The perspective used in anthropological elds of study 4 sub elds of anthropology Cultural Anthropology 0 Study of culture Culture a set of learned not instinct behaviors and beliefs used to adapt to our environment 0 Passed on from generation to generation quottraditionquot Includes 0 O O O O 0 Technology Subsistence activities what food we eat and how we get it Traditions Language Religion Social Organization 0 Became a popular eld of study in the 19th century Traditionally focuses on the study of non Western societies 0 Cultural anthropologists write an ethnography Ethnography a description a human society 0 The anthropologist39s observations 0 Similar to a lab report lnvolves participant observation 0 Not only do anthropologists watch the behavior and traditions of a culture but they also fully participate in it o Ethnology comparing and contrasting cultures using ethnographies Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Involves testing hypotheses about human behavior to nd universal behaviors An example of a universal behavior is religion Linguistic Anthropology o The study of human speech and language 0 Includes Origin of all language Origins of speci c languages and their relationships to oneanother Cultural use of language BiologicalAnthropology 0 Study of human biology Works with the evolutionary framework 0 Human adaptation Emphasizes the interaction between biology and culture Biocultural evolution culture can affect the evolution of human biology biology can equally affect the evolution of human culture Biocultural perspective cultural variables can change the environment leading to evolution 0 Subdisciplines Osteology study of the human skeleton Human Growth and Development Paleoanthropology Primatology Modern human physiological adaptations Molecular anthropology genetics 0 What Questions do Anthropologists ask 0 Questions that pertain to all of humanity Why did we move into cities Why did we develop certain social organizations Archaeology 0 The study of the human past regarding time and change Time 0 quotBig Bangquot 1015 billion years ago 0 Earth formation 46 billon years ago 0 Life 36 billion years ago Hominins 78 million years ago History of the Universe in one week 1 day 650 million years Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Sunday rst molecules Monday rst bacterialike organism Tuesday rst cells Wednesday cells with genetic materials Thursday invertebrates Friday trilobites Saturday insects reptiles mammals o The earliest hominins would not appear until a few Change minutes before midnight with anatomically modern humans appearing just seconds before Sunday Behavioral Biological 0 Thomas Malthus In nature animal populations tend to increase in size but resources stay the same 0 Limits population size Creates competition Survival of the ttestsupply and demand Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace Natural Selection selective pressures facilitate change in a species 0 Survival of the ttest Depends on genetic variation Differential Reproductive Success the idea that organisms best adapted to the environment will experience the most reproductive success Reproductive success the number of offspring produced that survive to reproductive age 0 Study of the human past using material remains Extremely dif cult lnvolves many specialists Chemistry Zoology Human biology Ceramics Geology History Stone tools Gene cs Scuba diving Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Sub elds Anthropologicalarchaeology Prehistoric archaeology before writing 0 Maya Aztec Sumerian for example 0 Historic archaeology after writing Artifacts Objects made or modi ed by humans 0 Pottery made bone tools modi ed September 14 2015 Archaeology cont39d 0 Sites places containing evidence of human activity Habitation kill sites extraction sites Not always living sites 0 Site and artifact discovery Most often accidental by nonprofessionals Survey Systematically walking an area to nd sites 0 Often an agricultural eld Takes advantage of disturbances in soil 0 Soil differences color are key 0 Search is systematic Record 0 Where materials are found 0 What types of materials are found 0 Site observations 0 Can also involve aerial photography 0 Geophysical prospecting Tells of disturbances quotground trothingquot Tools used 0 Ground penetrating radar Electromagnetic testing 0 Metal detectors Magnometers o Excavations Core auger tool used to pro le soil for stratigraphy Test pits small square generally 1m x 1m pits to break up site Soil analysis Phosphate analysis 0 Phosphate present in bones and human waste Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Hydrochloric acid turns blue when in contact with phosphate Provides information on the provenience origins of objects In Situ quotin placequot refers to when an object is located where it was originally deposited by ancestors Field director plans excavation manages crew Field crew assists with excavation of site as well as recording and analyzing data ChaHenges How best to excavate Mapping site 0 Time restraints o How to choose a site Danger to the site if it is going to be destroyed Survey results o What determines a site s contents Activities performed at the site Age of site Erosion Preservation Bioturbation living organisms animals people plant roots moving aspects of a site 0 Recording archaeological information I had to leave class no available notes September 16 2015 Archaeology cont39d 0 Types of nds Artifacts objects made or modi ed by humans Ecofacts unmodi ed objects present due to human behavior 0 Seeds possibly charred plants photoliths starch grains pollen used to reconstruct environment Features 0 Things too big to move 0 Cemeteries building structures storage pits 0 Analysis Archaeobotanists study plant materials Pollen photoliths starches Zooarchaeologists study animal bones Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Bioarchaeologists Paleoanthropologists Geoarchaeologists study rock features and stratigraphy Archaeometrists involve chemistry dating isotopes Historical and classical archaeologists Underwater archaeologists o Cataloguing Classi cation and Interpretation Interpretation depends on the questions being asked 0 When where what Techniques Ethnographic analogy 0 Understand that ancient behaviors were much more diverse than today Theoreticalapproaches 0 Ask a question 0 Answer the question 0 Test the answer against the data These steps are what makes archaeology a science Interpretation 0 Technology 0 Economy 0 Subsistence pattern Subsistence what food is consumed and how they got it Examples Huntergatherers Agriculturalists Exchange 0 Reciprocity redistribution and trade 0 Reciprocity gift giving 0 Redistribution a central power takes from the population and redistributes it back out 0 Organization 0 Social Marriage system Kinship Egalitarian vs strati ed Rank even within a class or family individuals can be ranked Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Class 0 Economic activities Division of labor 0 Generally sex based women and men have speci c roles Craft specialists o Politicalorganization Hierarchical Band tribe chiefdom state 0 Listed least complex to most complex 0 Ideology Cosmology Religious behavior existence of a creation story Ritual Shamans Priests Art Pictographs drawings Petroglyphs rock carvings Questions anthropologists want to answer 0 Why the sudden Paleolithic culture explosion 0 Why domesticat plants and animals 0 Why settle in permanent villages 0 Why develop a ranked society 0 Science 0 A method of explaining natural phenomena 0 Empirical veri able by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic 0 Hypotheses must be falsi able 0 Theory a hypothesis that has been strongly supported through many experiments and observation Pseudoscience an absolute statement that does not allow falsi cation Sta rted next lecture The First Humans o Hominin Bipedal primates Saanthropus tchadensis the oldest hominin dated between 6 7 million years ago The term hominin refers to us and our ancestors 0 Stone tools Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Secure origin of at least 26 million years ago Possibly earlier Lomekwi 33 million years ago Lotoli 37 million years ago site famous for the footprints o Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Homo sapens quotthinking manquot Primates Evolved 65 million years ago Arboreal niche evolved in and lived in forests Hominoidea human like creatures Evolved 25 million years ago Dryopithecines 0 1712 million years ago Hominins o 68 million years ago 0 Hominin distinction Bipedal locomotion walk upright on two feet Small canines vs prognathic face Orthognathic at face no projection of the jaw Prognathic projected lower face Lack of fur Increased parental investment 0 More complex brain 1300 cm3 Large brain Development of culture 0 Language 0 Recognize quothumannessquot in the fossil record Bipedalism Valgus knee 0 The femur is angled inward placed the knee directly below the hip Pelvis o Curved bowl shape 0 Changes shape of gluteus maximus allowing us to push off as we walk Anteriorly located foramen magnum o Spine enters bottom of skull o Allows us to look up and out upright posture Lumbar curve 0 Curving of the lower spine 0 Foot arch Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Conserves energy stores mechanical enery o Absorbs shock o Allows us to walk farther and longer 0 Big toe o In line with other toes rather than separated as in apes September 18 2015 o The First Humans cont39d 0 Sexual Dimorphism The physical differences in size and shape between males and females Increased sexual dimorphism suggests certain clues to social organization Gorillas high level of sexual dimorphism single dominant male with harem of females Gibbons little to no sexual dimorphism mate in monogamous pairs 0 Paleoanthropology Fossils mineralized remains of formerly living organisms Africa location of main focus because of hominin origins Classifying into genus and species Dif cult because of highly fragmented fossil record 0 Bipedalism How Why 0 Mostly speculation 0 Possible theories 0 Adaptation to more open environments arboreal niche diminished 0 Free up the hands hunting not likely gathering not likely childcare o Thermoregulation upright position cooler body temperature 0 Male provisioning safer for young to remain in one place males bring food for family 0 Dating Potassium 40 Halflife of 125 billion years Argon 40 isotope 15 million years halflife Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Absolute Only used in volcanic sediments o Argon gas is driven off by heat 0 New argon 40 becomes trapped in volcanic rock 0 Saheanthropus tchadensis ToroMenalla Chad Africa 67 million years ago Endocranial capacity 320380 cm3 Chimp 395 cm3 0 Human 1350 cm3 Massive supraorbital tori browridges Orthognathic at face very little Prognathism Canines worn at tip no CP3 honing complex Anterior foramen magnum Bipedal o Orrorin tugenensis Tugen Hills Kenya Afric 56 million years ago Forested environment Dental and postcranial remains Anterior teeth apelike Similar to Australopiths in shape and thickness but smaller molars Postcrania Curved proximal hand phalanges climbed tress Robust Proximal femur Groove on femoral neck occurs by full extension of leg 0 Bipedalism Long femoral neck 0 Thick cortical bone on inferior margin of femoral neck supports upright weight 0 Ardipithecus ramidus Aramis Middle Awash Ethiopia Africa 44 million years ago Forested environment quotArdiquot over 50 complete skeleton Female 0 Height 4ft 0 Weight 110lbs Cranial capacity 300350 cm3 Short broad ilium Bipedalism Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer Long arms abnormally so equal to leg length Likely not bipedal o Australopiths 2 genera Australopithecus Panranthropus 42 12 million years ago East South and Central Africa Evolutionarily diverse Characteristic groups Ancestral Derived more modern Shared characteristics between Australopithecus and Paranthropus Bipedal Small brains Megadonts 0 Massive teeth 0 Thick enamel Australopithecus anamensis Large canines sexually dimorphic Parallel left and right tooth rows 0 Large canine juga o Bulge in cheek to house canine root Diastema o Gap between lower teeth to rest canine when mouth is closed Curved hand phalanges o Arboreal living 0 Powerful long arms Tibia 0 Large size of lateral proximal condyle Valgus knee 0 Buttressing of lateral shaft 0 Bipedalism September 21 23 25 2015 Did not attend class no available notes Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer September 28 2015 Video African Genesis Missed most of lm Discussed o Austraopithecus 5diba Had an unusual mix of ape and human traits o Homo naedi September 29 2015 Extra Credit Dean39s Symposium Dr Karsten discussed his research in Ukraine and the Tripolye people Tripolye o 5000 3000 BC 0 Famous for stylized goddess gurines Highly outlined reproductive traits Pinched heads 0 Ceramics Very similar in style to ancient Greece 0 Megasites Large citylike Temple similar to Mesopotamian temples Location and culture of site has great impact on international relations 0 Ukrainian nationalism 0 Con ict between Ukraine and Russia 0 Origins Unsure whether indigenous or migrated Test DNA for mitochondrial evidence Dloop controls mutations Haplogroups 0 U Mesolithic o T ancient near East 0 V Neolithic farmer o J Neolithic farmer Evidence from haplogroups supports migration 0 From NearEast Cyprus Israel 0 Warfare Mostlikely Burialsite Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture Notes Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer All men Most with blunt force trauma Adhering bone no time to heal Location of trauma suggests execution style killing Presence and placement of a large boulder suggests a ritual site Bodies buried with canine amulets Level and patterning of decay suggests left out to rot several days before burial Died at battle site left by enemy Found later by tribefamily members and buried September 30 2015 Did not attend lecture no available notes First Test no notes October 22015
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