Constructivism and Discovery Learning
Constructivism and Discovery Learning EDU 2100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Thomas Nelson 101415 Constructivism Learners actively build their own knowledge instead of receiving preformed info passed on by others 0 Info can t just be dumped into learners heads the reality of external world 3 types of constructivism O Exogenous Acquisition of knowledge re ects I Teaching and experiences Endogenous New knowledge develops out of earlier knowledge 0 Dialectical Knowledge comes from the interactions between learners and the 0 environment Knowledge must be constructed to be meaningful and can only be achieved through active involvement of the learner Social Constructivism Idea that social interaction facilitates learning Vygotsky approach 0 More effective than them working by themselves Meaningful learning occurs within real world tasks Situated Cognition A learning theory can guide the process of learning and teaching in real classroom settings 0 Using pumpkins as basis for teaching an integrated unit of social studies Math art and language arts that includes a field trip calculating cooking sculpting and story writing 0 Apprenticeships Active involvement of learner and challenging experiences are key to constructivist instruction Piaget s constructivist approach and Vygotsky s scaffolding re ect application of constructivist principles to instruction 6 conditions for learning 0 Embed learning in relevant realistic learning environments Make shared responsibility among students a part of learning Support the use of multiple perspectives Use multiple representations of content Help students understand that knowledge is constructed 0 Encourage students to take ownership in learning 0000 Most constructivist approach motivationally is selfdetermination theory Tenets of Constructivism 0 Learning results from exploration and discovery 0 Learning is a community activity facilitated by shared inquiry O Learners play an ongoing active and critical role in assessment OO O O O O O 0 Learning results from participation in authentic activities Learners create knowledge from new info in light of their previous experiences Teachers should function as facilitators who coach learners as they create their own paths toward personally meaningful goals 0 Constructivistbased learning Provide opportunities to manipulate and experiment Employ meaningful problems that link concepts to everyday experiences Center around higher order concepts and multiple perspectives Allow learners to evaluate their own needs and test and revise knowledge Connect cognition to context Emphasize the value of overcoming awed beliefs as the basis for understanding 0 Constructivist teaching models and environments 0 Teaching for Understanding Choosing generative Setting explicit goals of understanding Doing performances that aid understanding Providing ongoing assessment 0 Collaborative Problem Solving Creating collaborative environments Honoring importance of authenticity Learning by doing Encouraging exploration Including social contexts Cultivating relationships Developing lifelong learning 0 Fostering a Community of Learners research share perform cycle Collaborating in small groups where each student has a subtopic area Sharing learning among students Participating in more consequential tasks 0 Apprenticeships in Thinking Stimulating children s interest in cognitive tasks Simplifying tasks to foster accomplishment Providing direction and stimulating motivation Offering feedback Minimizing frustration and risk Modeling acts to be performed 0 Problembased Learning Presenting problem scenarios Identifying relevant facts Generating hypotheses Identifying learning issues Applying new knowledge to test hypothesis Re ecting on knowledge gained O The Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series I Presenting believable challenging videodisk adventure stories I Providing opportunities for problem solving I Designed like detective novels I Applying to a variety of curricular areas I Generating many possible solutions 0 4 problems that constructivist teaching faces 0 Conceptual Re ecting teachers attempts to understand foundations of constructivism O Pedagogical Re ecting the more complex approaches for designing the curriculum and learning experiences that constructivism requires 0 Cultural Re ecting the reorientation of classroom roles and expectations necessary to accommodate the constructivist approach 0 Political Re ecting resistance from stakeholders in school communities when institutional norms are questioned and routines are disturbed 0 Discovery Learning Inquiry Learning Teacher provides problem situations that stimulate and encourage students to figure out the structure of the subject matter for themselves 0 Arranging the learning environment and introducing specific materials and tasks can increased chance that such discovery will happen 0 Direct instruction tells students what they need to know I 3 basic levels of guidance in instruction 0 Pure discovery Student receives problems to solve with minimal teacher guidance 0 Guided Discovery Student receives problems to solve but the teachers provide hints about how to solve the problems 0 Expository Final answer is presented to the student 0 Discovery approach should produce learning on an inductive basis gt going from specific to the general or from facts and observations to more general principles and theories 0 Discovery approach should make students behave like theorist I 5 learning architectures of discovery learning 0 Casebased learning 0 Incidental learning 0 Learning by exploring 0 Learning by re ection O Stimulationbased learning 0 Prior knowledge positively in uences discovery learning process 0 Communication is essential to discovery 0 Discoveries don t have to be in the classrooms 0 Field trips and other experiences outside of school Where students can engage in problem solving and use their intuition