Chapter 6 Stimulants
Chapter 6 Stimulants
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Victoria Diaz on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Stimulants Chapter 6 Stimulants are substances that can keep a person going both mentally and physically Restricted stimulants 0 Example Cocaine and amphetamine Readily available stimulants 0 Example Caffeine and nicotine Coca o A bush that grows in the Andes and produces cocaine 0 Harvested for thousands of years and actively cultivated for over 800 years The coca lead was an important part of the Inca culture 0 Used in religious cremonies and as currency Some natives of the Andes still chew coca leaves to reduce fatigue and increase productivity Cocaine was in use in Europe by the 19th century Primarily in drinks Coca wine Developed by Angelo Mariani Used in coca leaf extract in many other products including lozenges and tea Cocaine History Cocaine was also used in the United Stated in early versions of Coca Cola Cocaine was isolated from the plant before 1860 Processing 500 kilogram of coca leaves yields kilogram of cocaine Medical use DrWS Halsted experimented with cocaine as a local anesthetic Delivered via newly developed hypodermic syringe quotFather of modern surgery Cocaine History Early psychiatric use Sigmund Freud studied the use of cocaine and the variety as a treatment for depression and morphine dependence Later opposed use of the drug after nursing a friend through cocaine psychosis Early Legal Controls on Cocaine o Press and politicians made unsubstained claims about cocaine use among southern blacks Widespread use Associated with increased violent crime 0 46 stated passed laws to regulate cocaine between 1887 and 1914 1914 Harrison Act Taxed importation and sale 0 Negative racially charged publicity about cocaine helped shaped American drug policy Forms of cocaine 0 Coca paste 0 Cocaine hydrochloride Forms of Cocaine o Freebase 0 Crack cocaine quotHomicidal tendencies with improved Marksmanship Crude extract created during the manufacture of cocaine In South America often mixed with tobacco and smoked Most common form of pure cocaine Stable watersoluble salt Often insufflated Extraction of the cocaine base with a solvent Can be heated and the vapors inhaled Lumps of cocaine base prepared by mixing cocaine with water and baking soda Can be heated and the vapors inhaled IMPORTANT NOTE Powder and crack are the same drug 0 Contemporary Legal Controls Cocaine base is the active ingredient in all forms of cocaine 0 Cocaine use increased in the late19605 0 Prior to 1985 the major form of the drug available was cocaine hydrochloride Most often insufflated Usually sold in bulk amounts that were relatively expen ve Cocaine use was associated with status 0 Media and the politicians focused on crack use among urban black Americans 0 Mechanism of Action Chewing or sucking coca leaves Insufflation Intravenous Injection Smoked Cocaine Elimination Associated with violence and dependency Anti Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Penalties for sale of crack cocaine significally more severe compared with powder cocaine Cocaine s mechanism of action is complex Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine GABA and glutamate have also been implicated Slow absorption and onset of effects Snorting Absorbed through nasal mucous membranes Rapid absorption and onset of effects Rapid and brief effects Rapid and brief effects 0 Cocaine is metabolized by enzymes in the blood and liver 0 Halflife of about one hour 0 Major metabolizes have a halflife of eight hours Local anesthesia These are detected by urine drug screens It takes about 3 days for metabolizes to be completely by eliminated after moderate use Beneficial Use Used medically since 1884 Early applications were eye surgery and dentistry Synthesized drugs with few CNS effects have largely replaced cocaine 0 Cocaine remains in use for surgery in the nasal laryngeal and esophageal regions 0 Lidocaine Novacaine Concerns Acute Toxicity o No evidence that occasional use of small amounts is detrimental to health Potential toxicity increases with larger doses 0 Profound CNS stimulation 0 Which can lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest Illicit cocaine is often adulterated o Adulterants may be more toxic than the drug Concern Chronic Toxicity o Binge use Drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses 0 Risks of binge use Increasing irritability restlessness paranoia 0 Can result in paranoid psychosis 0 Most seem to recover
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