Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement
Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement 110.0
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hess on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 110.0 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Paul,Stanley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Chapter 1 Chemistry and Measurements Chemistry The study of the composition and structure of materials and of the changes that materials undergo 18 Problem Solving Dimensional Analysis 1 Converting from one unit to another 2 General Problems Find out what I information you need I a Given to conceptual plan to quot nd b sort 4 C Strategize Important to know what kind of number you re d Solve looking for really small eCheck 3 Units raised to a power 4 Order of magnitude estimations Know what equation to I I use know what 5 Problems With an equatron 39 39 39 quot 18 Label Method Dimensional Analysis Example 1 mph kmmin Speed limit 65 mph Traveled 197 km in 102 minutes Averanp rmed 65mi lhour 1km km x x lhour 60 min 6214m min 174 Example 2 570 L Automobile Engine 39 3 Displacement L I In Volume of the cylinders in cubic I mL I cm3 I in3 inrhoc Make sure to rllhn le 3 3423z3 254 cm 57L 1000 mL lcm3 X X X6 1 1L lmL T 14 Elements Compounds Mixtures Element A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by any chemical reaction 0 Example Hydrogen Compound A substance composed of two or more elements chemically bound 0 Examples Sodium chloride NaCl Water H20 Mixtures A material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances Heterogeneous Mixture a mixture that consists of physically distinct parts each with different properties 0 Example Italian Dressing Homogeneous Mixture A mixture that is uniform in its properties also called a solution 0 Example Salt water If you take a bucket of sea water Heterogeneous Sand algae challc 14 Chemical and Physical Physical Property A characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemicals 0 Examples Boiling point density physical state conductivity polarity solubility Physical Change A change in the form of matter but not its chemical identities 0 Ice Water Steam 0 Breaking glass 0 Chemical Chang A change in which one more more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter 0 Reacts towith something else 0 AKA chemical reaction 0 Signs a chemical change has occurred Color change Gas given off Change in oxidation state 17 Density 0 Density Mass per unit volume d V A ton of feathers and a ton of bricks have the same mass but different densities why Because they have different volumes 12 Experiment and Explanation Experiment An observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained Hypothesis A tentative explanation of some regularity of nature Theory A tested explanation of a basic natural phenomena M A concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature 13 Law of Conservation of Mass The total mass remains constant during a chemical or phygcalchange quotMass is neither created nor destroyedquot Example 4625 g of wood is burned in 23625 g of air in a sealed vessel After the reaction 700 g of ash is weighed What is the mass of the air WOOD AIR l ASH AIR WOOD AIR ASH AIR 4625 23625 28250 0700 27550 g of air Materials Elements Substances Compounds Homogeneo
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