Thinking, Intelligence and Language
Thinking, Intelligence and Language PSY 200
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Zinno on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 200 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Dr. Liesa Klein in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Psychology chapter 7 Thinking Intelligence and Language Thinking Manipulating information by forming concepts problemsolving making decisions and re ection Concepts The mental grouping of similar objects events ideas or people There are a variety of chairs but their common features de ne the concept of a chair Prototypes a reference image of the best example Corneille et al 2004 0 memory shifts object toward the prototype Shown a face that was 30 percent Asian 70 percent Caucasian Later remember the face as 80 percent Caucasian Problemsolving Reasoning DecisionMaking Problem Solving nding ways to attain goals Reasoning transforming information to draw conclusions DecisionMaking evaluating choices and choosing Problem Solving Find and Frame a problem Problem Solving strategies Algorithm systematic formulaic Subgoaling goal setting Heuristics shortcuts quick lters Evaluate Solutions Rethink amp Rede ne Formal vs Informal Reasoning Formal Reasoning Inductive reasoning This cat is black That cat is black A third cat is black Therefore all cats are black Deductive reasoning Bachelor39s are unmarried men Bill is unmarried Therefore Bill is a bachelor Informal Reasoning Heuristics Barriers to Reasoning Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory We assume such events are common Representatives Heuristics A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes Framing how a situation is presented impacts decisions 0 Disease which is expected to kill 600 people If Program A is adopted 200 people will be saved If Program B is adopted there is a 13 probability that 600 people will be saved and a 23 probability that no people will be saved 0 Which of the two programs would you favorBoth same outcome 0 Con rmation Bias usually unintentional searching only for info that supports our ideas 0 Mental Set persistence in using strategies that have worked in the past 0 Functional Fixedness tendency to conceptualize objects as having limited uses Overconfidence and The Hindsight Bias tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments Anchoring estimates can be strongly in uenced by the values that are taken as a starting point Critical and Creative Thinking Openmindedness Creativity Convergent Thinking searching for the best solution Divergent Thinking searching for many solutions What is intelligence 0 There are many ways to describequantify intelligence 0 Intelligence typically 0 g general ability Intelligence a history 0 Alfred Binet early 190039s Sorting children in school 0 Mental Age 0 Revised to Chronological Age the 39StanfordBinet39 Eugenics Various 39IQ39 tests ranged in focus Intelligence a history IQ measures today demonstrate 0 Reliability consistency Validity measures what it is supposed to 0 And are Standardized Uniform administration and scoring Intellectual Disability Constant supervision a few decades ago supportive family environment and special education they can now care for themselves 39lEEEEES EFF MlEEHTAL EJETAEED39HTlll l Apprexim ete Percent age at 7 l ntellligenee Perseuan with 7 leeHem Seernee Reterdetien Adeptetiem rte Demands of Liiilfe Mild 5 e Fe 35 May llearn academic Skillll up be Sixtlhmgrede IlEM EH AsdultE may with eseieten use achieve selfSupple ing eeeiei end meati e net skills Mederete 35 521 lef za Mew prugreee te eeeend grede ee ell aee emieally Adulte may E39 I I tribute to their awn supperquot by lie baring in sheltered werkehepei Erewe ire 3 423 Riley learn tn talk and t5 alarmrm Simple we r c tasks under elxu e Supervieien but erre generally lune Erie tea ere t lfrem veeeti39ernel training Prim n lune HELDW ee 1 2 Require eeneta nt aid and Supervi inn Eeu ice Elepri ted with fee rm ieeien frem the Ef g a39i and Sierisrieef Meetmi unfairDe es iesMere Fourth Editier n teaLt reyi Eiesn 0 pyright euee me ieeri Feychietric seeeietiun Purposes of Intelligence Tests 0 Screen for special needs services 0 School 0 Adult services Admissions to certain schools 0 Gifted Competency to stand trial How do we test in schools today An intelligence test your capability to reason plan solve problems think abstractly comprehend ideas and language and learn And an achievement test measurement of acquired information eg what you have been taught and remembered from class Flynn Effect Intelligence scores have steadily risen by 3 IQ points per decade in the US EEEIEE in US I Dogma J HqE u E39iEnc39D rZ39EL39 E15i39i2 3 MhzrrrnaEzrr39 F iljlf iic 1u39ui39na39a393921vo1u ismu 1 fig Emma39s UTEEL I ETEET 1393357 13935TI39E 1F 39i u39ilz i FI39EI39JCH f 39fl w item a raga What in uences intelligence Genetics 0 Environment Educann Genetic In uences Studies of twins family members and adopted children together support the idea that there is a signi cant genetic contribution to intelligence I 7 7 its Lowercorreilationthan W e 39m39lifiquot i l39m idooti39tali twins reared I39MEH39EEHC E Dog I together EhoWE Borne scorEE environmental Effoizt oorro ation H313 39 CITE 39 r tower correlation than identicottwinoshows I quot genetic effects LIEU 39 739 0513 I140 ELSE ELEID 0112 39 I Identical Identical Fraternat Siblings tlnreiated twins twins twins roared inditi uats roared reared reared together reared together a paint together togeth or Environmental In uences Fraternal twins raised together tend to show similarity in intelligence scores Identical twins raised apart show slightly less similarity in their intelligence scores Early Intervention Effects Early neglect impoverishes intelligence as does low mental stimulation Preschool In uences Formal education programs help 0 Head Start aids poor children and supports intellectual development Help children to acquire new vocabulary Provide intellectual stimulation Children show a gain of about 10 IQ points Long term impact on children Schooling Effects 0 Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores Ethnic Similarities and Differences Two disturbing but agreed upon facts Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores Highscoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels of education and income Environmental Effects 0 Differences in intelligence among these groups are largely environmental as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than the other The Question of Bias Intelligence tests are culturallylinguistically bias Strong efforts to continually reduce it TestTakers Expectations 0 A stereotype threat is a selfcon rming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among AfricanAmericans and among women of all colors Other theories of intelligence 0 Multiple inteIIigences o Gardner 0 Sternberg O Emotional intelligence Howard Gardner Gardner proposes eight types of intelligences and speculates about a ninth one existential intelligence Existential intelligence is the ability to think about the question of life death and existence EARDIHER S EIGHT IIHTEMIEEINEES ptitudla Exemplar Linguiatit quotll Eliat paat quot quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot E39i39li i i39i ir quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot quot 5Ba d i lyaltinasthatil 39 39 39 1 ma grahamdance quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot a lntarperaanal lather trample Mahatma Gandhi laadar Naturalist Charles Darwin naturalist Robert Sternberg Sternberg 1985 1999 2003 suggests three intelligences rather than eight 1 Analytical Intelligence Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests 2 Creative Intelligence Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations generating novel ideas music amp art creation 3 Practical Intelligence Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks eg street smarts Language our spoken written or gestured work is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others we learn on average after age 1 3500 words a year amassing 60000 words by the time we graduate from high school 0F LANGUAGE DEVELOPMEHT Month approximate Stage 4 Babbles many speech sounds l Structure of Language 0 Phonology basic phonemes sounds Phoneme smallest unit of speech or sound 0 Morphology rules for word formation Morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language Syntax rules for combining words to form phrases and sentences Semantics meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics use of language Note Grammar includes all these