Chapters 4-8 classnotes
Chapters 4-8 classnotes REHAB 126
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gianna Sgro on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REHAB 126 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Mark Kilwein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Introduction to Psychology Sigmund Freud He was a Darwinian 0 Heavily in uenced by Charles Darwin Said that we behave like animals 0 Animals are driven by instincts Incest Is it human Freud would agree that it is in our nature because we are animals Said humans learn by their environment but don t have instincts Freud had a big ego Freud said at birth that we are born with libido 0 The amount of libido is fixed and finite 0 Cannot be created or destroyed Personality development 0 Psychosexual development 0 Neurological areas of pleasure o Erotogenic zones I Where you are programed to experience your pleasure 39 First stage oral stage 0 12 months 0 The mouth 0 Sexual act sucking 0 Sexual partner mother 0 Sucking your thumb was considered masturbating Fixated libido 39 Second stage anal stage 1 2 years 0 Sphincter 0 Poop 0 Plays with poop hoard their feces 0 Potty training libido 0 Requires cooperation 39 Third stage phallic stage 3 5 years 0 Erect penis 0 Wired towards your genitals 0 Juvenile masturbation o Bisexual 39 Fourth stage latency period 6 years old pre puberty 0 Quiet 0 Same sex peers o quotNo girls allowedquot 39 Fifth stage genital stage puberty adulthood 0 Mating 0 Forming relationships 0 Hormonal driven sexual urges 0 Learning how to mate and follow the rules 0 Very anti instinct 39 Fourth stage continued 0 Boys 0 Penis Attachment to mom Does not want dad in the picture Sees a girl and realizes she doesn t have a penis thinks her dad did that to her Castration anxiety Taking out your eyes symbolic of his balls Oedipal crisis Oedipus Kill father and marry mother Took out his eyes 0 Identify your father Befriend dad Be like dad Mom is the prettiest girl in the world Likes girls that look like mom 0 No father figure 0 Girls 01 Identify with females Have female interests Gay Effeminate Sees a boy and becomes envious of his penis Penis envy Freud said that the clitoris is mischievous Blames mom for taking her penis away Electra compleX Resentful towards mother Interested in father No father figure Promiscuous o Frigid extremely low seX drive 0 Oral dependent personality type 0 Act like a big fat baby 0 Oral aggressive 0 Mouthy rude sarcastic hurtful 0 Hurt with words 0 Anal retentive 0 Clean neat tidy 0 Stingy would want money but not want to share anything 0 Withholding 0 Freud believed that money was symbolic of feces 0 Anal expulsive 0 Doesn t value money likes money but blows it fast Sloppy 0 Disorganized 0 Generous to a fault doesn t value money 0 Excess libido was fixated 0 ID ego All libido at birth is ID 39 Irrational 39 Self concept 0 Acquire more language 39 Freud called this the quotitquot because it is nasty and we don39t want this 0 IDego as an adult psychopath 39 Way bigger than the ego 0 Ego 0 All about self preservation 39 Selfish 39 Who we think we are 0 Little less libido 0 Makes you follow the rules 0 Makes you do good things 0 Anxiety 39 Ego vs ID neurotic anxiety nervous 0 Alcohol makes the ID more prominent 39 Ego vs superego guilty 0 It is wrong to say you have a guilty conscience because you have a guilty ego you have an archaic conscience 39 Ego vs real world realistic anxiety 0 When you hear quotthis isn39t gonna be goodquot and you have cancer the feeling you experience is realistic anxiety 0 If you see a truck coming at you and the feeling you have is realistic anxiety 0 Superego o Internalized voice of mothercaregiverparentssociety 39 Ego ideal 0 Rewards 0 When you do something good and you get rewarded or patted on the back for it 39 Right vs wrong conscience ID is the racehorse Ego is the jockey Conscious 0 Who you think you are 0 Unconscious 0 The REAL you 0 The animal in you 0 Preconscious 0 If you were to be asked what39s your mother39s maiden name you wouldn t have been thinking about it before but when asked you can retrieve the information fast 0 Father of psychoanalysis OO 0 Therapy where the ID was the ego shall be 0 Dream analysis 0 When the unconscious comes out in your dreams 0 Symbolism 0 Free association 0 Getting people to talk 0 We are all narcotic 0 Mental health realistically thinking is the ability to work and play according to Freud Charles Darwin 0 Responsible for the theory of evolution 0 He said that humans are animals 0 Natural selection Isaac Newton 0 Law of conservation of mass and energy 0 The universe is a closed system with a fixed and finite amount of energy 0 Energy cannot be created or destroyed Humanism Abraham Maslow 0 Ph D in psychology 0 Human being is capable of highest spirituality 0 God like 0 American 0 New York 0 Self actualized 0 Studied Freud in grad school 0 According to a humanist the environment messes with people and that is What makes them not quotbeautiful peoplequot 0 Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs 0 Freud missed the point 0 He described and theorized our basic needs 0 Once our physiological needs are being met we want safetv 0 Safety that they will continue to be met 0 Insurance 0 Police 0 Laws 0 Government 0 Armies O Belonging o Tribalism 39 NFL 0 Paint on your face 0 Make chants o Battles 0 Family 0 Friends 0 Feeding the ID 0 Terrorism want to feel like they belong 0 Esteem 0 Esteem from others 0 Esteem from yourself 0 Maslow said it has to be true esteem O Self actualization 0 Fully human o Optimistic view of humans 0 Spiritual Nirvana type state 0 Higher needs 39 Justice 39 Humanity is your tribe 39 Truth 39 Art 39 Beauty 39 Lift up everybody Carl Rogers 0 Ph D in psychology 0 Actualized 0 In uenced by Freud O Believed that Freud got everything right 0 Actualizing tendency 0 Awareness 0 In voice moving you in the right direction 7 o Inherent ability to know what is the right thing to d r 0 Organismic valuing process 0 quotIt s a whisper not a shoutquot 0 We know we need people to do stuff for us 0 Self concept O Occurs at the same time that language is developed 0 We need people to do stuff for us Parents 39 Others 0 We M about what we need 0 Self actualizing tendency 0 What we think we should do 0 Need for positive regard 39 Unconditional positive regard love 39 Conditional positive regard conditions of worth 0 Moves us forward to become fully human 0 Incongruence leads to anXiety anger self loathing bitterness violence etc 39 Society knocking us off of the self actualizing tendency causes this 0 Therapeutic Contract 0 Client must be incongruent 39 Client cannot be congruent because they do not come to therapy to learn from someone you come to get help you have to have a problem 0 Helper must be congruent 0 Client has to want help 0 Helper must be able and willing to help 0 Non directive therapy 0 Client centered therapy 39 Therapy comes from within the client Congruence comes from within the client 39 Helper shows unconditional positive regard I Helper wants to listen 39 Do not give advice I Do re ect back to them 0 Classical conditioning re ex conditioning 0 Salivating 0 Pupil dilatation 0 Discovered by Ivan Pavlov 39 Russian physiologist 39 Won a Noble Prize for his work His subjects were dogs for this research Digestion in dogs 39 Gastric secretions in dogs 39 Went from gastric secretions to saliva 39 Very good surgeon 0 UCS UCR 0 CS CR 0 Appetitive conditioning Food 39 Water 39 Something that the dog wants Treats 0 Defensive conditioning I Training the dog to react in a defensive way 39 Pick up his paw if he is shocked in his paw I Blow air in the dog39s eye and the dog blinks 39 More powerful than appetitive conditioning o Pheromones 39 Natural smells Woman39s natural smell is a turn on for men 0 Behavioral Therapy 39 Unwanted behavior trigger 39 CS CR 39 Unlearning maladaptive behavior 39 Leads to a short term effect but no long term effect Thorndike 0 American psychologist and educator 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Law of effect 39 You39ll learn based on the responses to your behavior 39 The door opens eventually for the cat 39 The cat pawing the loop 39 You have to measure the operant to see if the response was a reinforcement or punishment Positive reinforcementpunishment introduces something new from the environment 39 Negative reinforcementpunishment removes something from the environment 39 Negative reinforcement is never punishment 39 Negative reinforcement usually results in relief 39 Positive reinforcement usually leads to happiness 39 Positive punishment usually leads to anger Pavlov is to Watson as Thorndike is to Skinner 0 John Watson is the father of behaviorism 0 Watson hated Freud 0 Studied Little Hans He is afraid of horses his parents are really baf ed and want to help him Horses are symbolic of his father Little Hans knows that he cannot say that he is afraid of his father Freud said to have dad be nice to him that he will never hurt him The phobia of horses will go away and it does 0 Freud never had to see the patient talked to the parents 0 Watson said that this was not true Little Hans probably saw a horse and it did something to scare him 0 Watson decided to mock Freud and study Little Albert 0 Easy going very mellow patient Little Albert is afraid of nothing He likes the lab rats that are the stimulants Gloria Raynor his assistant Watson makes a loud sound when the rat is with Little Albert and the baby starts freaking out then the rat gets taken away and then it happens again and Little Albert gets freaked out when he has the white lab rat now Watson decides to put white cotton balls in front of Little Albert and that freaks him out Now he dresses up as Santa and Little Albert freaks out due to the white beard 0 Watson decides to study human sexuality 0 Has Raynor take his pulse and did sexual things and then published this 39 When he publishes this his wife divorces him and gets Watson banned No one hires him 39 Watson went to New York Madison Ave and goes into marketing 0 Goes into cigarette ads 0 Cigarette smokers cannot find the difference between the different cigarette types 0 Celebrity endorsements started with Watson 39 Banned behaviorism due to this scandal 0 People getting their doctorates were not even taught behaviorism 0 1960 gave Watson the gold medal but had a fear of public speaking so had to have his daughter go get it 39 BF Skinner 0 BK Skinner brought behaviorism back out which is why people thought he was the father
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