Chapter 5-6 Notes
Chapter 5-6 Notes COMM 2331 - 0010
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2331 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
The Nature of Communication Communicationljthe passing of information the exchange of ideas or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought bt a sender and a receiver 0 Must be a commonality in thinking this is oftentimes hard to attain Success of communication depends on nature of message audience s interpretation of it and environment in which it is received among other factors Languagemajor barrier to effective communication 0 Growth of bilingual multicultural ethnic markets in US 0 Importance of appealing to Hispanic market A Basic Model of Communication Participantssender amp receiver 0 Communication toolsmessage amp channel 0 Communication functionsprocessesencoding decoding response feedback Extraneous factorsnoise Source Encoding Sourceljsender of a communication personorganization that has information to share w another person or group of people Many companies use spokespeople as sources of information 0 Must be careful that this person is knowledgeabletrustworthy Encodingljsource selects words symbols pictures etc to represent message that will be delivered to receivers 0 Putting thoughts ideas or information into symbolic form 0 Encode message in way that will be understood by receiver using familiar words Message Messageljcontains informationmeaning the source hopes to convey o Verbalnonverbal oralwritten symbolic Effectiveness determined by impressionimage ad creates Marketers must make decisions regarding content structure amp design of messages Channel Channelljmethod by which communication travels from the sourcesender to the receiver Nonpersonal channels those that carry a message wo direct interpersonal contact bt sender and receiver 0 Mass media or mass communications message sent to many individuals at one time o 2 major types print or broadcast Print newspapers magazines direct ail billboards Broadcast radioTV Internet has characteristics of both personal amp nonpersonal communication 0 Personal channelsljinvolve direct communication bt 2 or more persons and can occur through interpersonal contact faceto face or via other methods emailsocial media 0 Ex salespeople 0 Major advantage message can be tailored to individualaudience amp sender receives direct feedback 0 Wordofmouth members of one s social networks such as friends neighbors associates coworkers familymembers 0 Buzz marketing generating wordofmouth discussions by using systematicorganized efforts to encourage people to speak favorably about companybrandorganization 0 Viral Marketingljact of propagating marketingrelavant messages through the help and cooperation of individual consumers 0 Taking advantage of emergencegrowth of online communitiessocial media 0 3 major factorscharacteristics of message individual senderreceiver and social network 0 seeding identifyingchoosing initial group of consumers who will be used to start diffusion or spreading of message 0 seeding strategydetermining how many initial quotseedsquot are needed and selecting right consumers to start viral process 0 Word of mouth statisticsljfaceto face interaction 75 phone conversations 15 online channels 10 0 Consumers ascribe high credibility to information they hear from others o It is the job of brand strategists to identify the people who are most likely to talk about their brand and when where and why people talk ReceiverDecoding o Receiverl persons with whom the sender shares thoughtsinformation 0 Consumers in target marketaudience who read hear see marketer s message and decode it o Decodingljprocess of transforming the sender s message back into thought 0 Heavily in uenced by receiver s eld of experience experiences perceptions attitudes and values heshe brings to communication situation 0 For effective communicationmessage decoding process of receiver amp sender must match 0 Receiver must understandcorrectly interpret what source is trying to communicate 0 Must be common ground bt 2 parties 0 Issues with age gap as most advertising agency personnel are younger than the general population Noise Noiseextraneous factors that can distortinterfere with message reception o Ex errorsproblems with encoding message distortion in radioTV signal distractions at point of reception 0 May also occur bc elds of experience of senderreceiver don t overlap lack of common ground ResponseFeedback Responseljreceiver s set of reactions after seeing hearing or reading the message Feedbackljpart of the receiver s response that is communicated back to the sender o Lets sender monitor how intended message is being decodedreceived 0 Ex customer inquiries store visits coupon redemptions reply cards Identifying Target Audience TargetAudenceaudience that will be focus of firm s advertisingpromotional efforts Marketers look for customers who have similar needswants and thus can be reached with same basic communication strategy 0 Market nichesljvery small wellde ned groups of customers 0 Can be reached through personalselling or direct mail 0 Market segments broader classes of buyers who have similar needscan be reached with similar messages 0 Can be reached through broader based media newspapers magazines TV 0 Mass communication is oneway ow of information from marketer to consumer 0 Feedback is indirecthard to measure 0 Marketer not able to explainclarify message to make it more effective The Response Process Cognitive stage green Affective stage pink Behavioral stage blue AIDA model represents stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personalselling process oAttentioninterestdesireaction oHierarchy of effects model process by which advertising works oAwarenessknowledgelikingpreferenceconvictionpurch ase o Consumer passes through series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of productservice to actual purchase o Advertising effects occur over period of time o Purchase funnel metaphor consumer starts at top of funnel with of brands in mind and methodically reduces number until they emerge with brand they choose to purchase olnnovation adoption modelljdiffusion of innovations oAwarenessinterestevaluationtrialljadoption o Stages to adopting new productservice o Best way to evaluate new product is through actual use o quotearly adoptersquot certain type of consumers who have interest in new products and ability to in uence others they place critical role in successfailure of new product lnformation processing modelljadvertising effects response hierarchy oPresentationattentioncomprehensionyieldingretention lbehavior o Important part of this moderetention receiver s ability to retain information so that they can use it later Alternative Response Hierarchies The Standard Learning Hierarchy oLearnfeedo sequence o Consumer viewed as active participant in communication process o Gathering information through active learning likely when consumer is highly involved in purchase process and there is much differentiation among competing brands o The DissonanceAttribution Hierarchy o Doljlfeelljllearn sequence O O O O O O O O O 0 Model argues that major impact occurs after purchase has been made Occurs in situations where consumers must choose bit 2 alternatives that are similar in quality but complex and may have hiddenunknown attributes Customer tries to reduce postpurchase dissonance or anxiety over doubt of purchase by selective learning seeking supporting information and avoiding information that raises doubts about decision According to this model marketer needs to recognize that sometimes attitudes develop after purchase Mass media reduces dissonance by providing supportive information to reinforce choices and ensure purchase pattern will continue Occurs when customer is involved in purchase situation relevant for postpurchase situations Ex consumer may purchase tires recommended by friend and then develop favorable attitude toward company amp pay close attention to its ads to reduce dissonance The LowInvolvement Hierarchy Learndofeel sequence Receiver passes from cognition to behavior to attitude change Occurs when there is low consumer involvement in purchase process minimal differences among brands and massmedia advertising TV is a lowinvolvement medium viewer s perceptual defenses are reduced or absent during commercials Message exposure under low involvementshift in cognitive structureljpurchasepositivenegative experienceattitude formation Consumer engages in passive learning and random information catching rather than active information seeking Advertisers repetitively use catchy jingles or symbols Pillsbury doughboy Tony the Tiger Energizer Bunny to create an association in consumer s mind that they will retain The Social Consumer Decision Journey Consumers more empowered than ever before due to advent of social networking tools and availability to digital devices Consumers have both active and passive shopping modes Cognitive Processing of Communications 0 Cognitive Response Approach 0 Assessment of cognitive responsesthe thoughts that occur to them while reading viewing andor hearing communication ProductMessage Thoughts 0 O O Counterargumentsljthoughts recipient has that are opposed to position taken in message Support argumentsljthoughts that affirm claims made in message Likelihood of counterarguing greater when message makes claims opposing receiver s beliefs SourceOriented Thoughts 0 O 0 Cognitive responses directed at source of communication Source derogationsljnegative thoughts about spokespersonorganization lead to reduction in message acceptance Source bolstersljdeveloping favorable thoughts towards source 0 Ad Execution Thoughts 0 O O O O lndividual s thoughts about the ad itself Reactions to ad execution factors such as creativity of ad quality of visual effects colors voice tones Attitude toward the ad A l ad represents receiver s feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward the ad Important determinant of ad effectiveness bc reactions may be transferred to brand itself or directly in uence purchase intentions Many advertisers use emotional ads or sexual imagery to try to get consumers attention Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 O 0 Process by which persuasive communications lead to persuasion by in uencing attitudes Attitude formationchange depends on amount of elaboration or processing of relevant information that occurs in response to message High elaborationljreceiver engages in careful consideration thinking anol evaluation of informationarguments in message Low elaborationljreceiver does not engage in active information processingthinking but rather makes inferences on basis of simple positive or negative cues 2 IMPORTANT FACTORS Motivation amp Ability Motivation depends on factors such as involvement personal relevance and individuals needs and arousal levels Ability depends on individual s knowledge intellectual capacity and opportunity to process message 0 2 BASIC ROUTES TO PERSUASIONA39ITITUDE CHANGE gt Central route receiver is very active involved participant in communication process ability amp motivation are high Consumer pays close attention to message content amp scrutinizes message arguments analyze quality of argument High level of cognitive response activity Attitude change is enduring and resists efforts to changeit gt Peripheral route receiver relies on peripheral cues that may be related to main arguments Receiver is lacking motivationability to process information Not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing Ex consumer thinks endorser is likeable attractive or an expert or if consumer likes the way the ad is made musicimagery 0 Implications of ELM 0 High involvement in target audiencead should contain strong arguments that are difficult to refutecounterargue 0 Low involvement in target audienceperipheral cues are more important than detailed message arguments 0 Effectiveness of celebrity endorser has signi cant effects for low involvement but does not have effect on high involvement Persuasion Matrix Persuasion matrixljhelps markets see how each controllable element source message channel factors interact with consumer s response process o Independent variables controllable components of communication process o Dependent variables steps a receiver goes through in being persuaded ReceiverComprehensionlCan the receiver comprehend the ad 0 Messages must be clearunderstandable 0 Must know words symbols expressions that target market customers use and understand Channelpresentationl Which media will increase presentation 0 How well media vehicle reaches target audience Messageyieldingl What type of message Will create favorable attitudes or feelings 0 Ex evoking positive feelings through humor emotion through music or using sexual appeals Sourceattentionl Who Will be effective in getting consumers attention 0 Difficult for advertisers to break through clutter 0 Need to use sources who will attract target audience s attention actors athletes rock stars attractive models Source Factors oSourceperson involved in communicating marketing message either directly or indirectly Three basic categories of source attributes credibility attractiveness power 0 Credibilityljextent to which recipient sees source as having relevant knowledge skill experience and trusts the source to give unbiased objective information 2 important aspectsexpertise amp trustworthiness o lnternalizationljwhen receiver adopts opinion of credible communicator since heshe believes information from this source is accurate 0 Applying Expertise Celebrity spokespeople most effective when they are knowledgeable experienced and quali ed to talk about product they are endorsing Endorsements from experts doctorsdentists common in advertising 0 Applying Trustworthiness Source must be believable Trustworthy public gures hesitate to endorse products bc of potential impact on their reputationimage Advertisers use tricks to increase perception that their sources are trustworthy hidden cameras overheardconversation Publicityendorsements made by celebrities on news programstalk shows 0 Using Corporate Leaders as Spokespeople Using company president or chief executive of cer as spokesperson in rm s advertising Ultimate expression of company s commitment to quality amp customer service Can also help create identitypersonality 0 Limitations of Credible Sources Very credible source more effective when audience is not in favor of position advocated in message Very credible source less important when audience has neutral position Sleeper effectljwhen persuasiveness of message increases with passage of time may help with low credibility sources bc as time increases consumers focus more on message and less on source 0 Attractivenessljencompasses similarity familiarity and likeability Similarityresemblance bt source and receiver of message 0 0 Shared needs goals interests lifestyles Companies select salespeople who have similar characteristics to customers Similarity creates feelings of empathy for consumers quotI can see myself in that situationquot Familiarityknowledge of source through exposure Likabilityan affection for the source Use of celebrities athletes musicians popular public gures Celebrities have stopping power draw attention to advertising messages in cluttered media environment Source attractiveness leads to persuasion through process of identi cation Identi cation is when receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship w source and adopt similar beliefs attitudes preferences or behavior Unlike internalization it does not integrate information from attractive source into receiver s belief system Position is only maintained as long as source remains attractive o Overshadowing product Sometimes celebrities can overshadow product if consumers focus solely on them and not the sales message 0 Overexposure When celebrity endorses too many productscompanies and becomes overexposed People become skeptical bc they know celebrities are being paid Advertisers can use exclusivity clauses to limit number of products a celebrity can endorse 0 Risk to advertiser Celebrity s behavior poses risk to company They can sometimes involve in activities that could embarrass companies whose products they endorse Understanding meaning of celebrity endorsers Source Power 0 A source has power when heshe can actually administer rewards and punishments to the receiver Perceived control source must be perceived as being able to administer positivenegative sanctions to the receiver Perceived concern receiver must think source cares about whether or not receiver conforms Perceived scrutiny receiver s estimate of the source s ability to observe conformity Complianceljreceiver accepts the persuasive in uence of source and acquiesces to hisher position in hopes of obtaining a favorable reaction or avoiding punishment Message Factors 0 Message Structure Items presented rst and last are remembered better than those presented in middle Communicator s strongest arguments should be presented early or late in message Primacy effectljinformation presented rst is most effective low interest or when target audience is opposed to message Recency effectljlast arguments presented are most effective when audience is highly interested or predisposed to communicator s position Should message draw explicit conclusion or allow receivers to draw their own conclusions Research suggests explicit conclusions are more easily understood Highly educated people prefer to draw own conclusions For highly person or egoinvolving issues message recipients may want to draw own conclusions Onesided messageljmentions only positive attributesbene ts most effective when audience is low educated or already holds favorable opinion Twosided message presents both good and bad points more effective when audience holds opposing opinion or is highly educated Twosided messages can enhance credibility of source seen as less biasedmore objective Most advertisers use onesided messages Refutational appealljcommunicator presents both sides of an issue and then refutes the opposing viewpoint More effective than onesided messages in making consumers resistant to opposing message Advertisers often design ads where the visual image supports the verbal appeal to create a compelling impression in consumer s mind 0 Message Appeals 0 lpractice of directlyindirectly naming competitors in an ad and comparing one or more speci c attributes Can help position new brands in set of brands customer may be considering Often used for brands with small market share they compare with market leader in hopes of tapping into leader s market Commonly used in political advertising 0 used to evoke emotional response and arouse individuals to take steps to remove the threat More effective when message recipient is self con dent and prefers to cope with dangers rather than avoid them More effective among nonusers of product than users Message recipients may tune out message that uses too much fear but at times high levels of fear do lead to behavior change 0 Attract and hold consumers attention Enhance effectiveness by putting consumers in positive mood increasing their liking of ad and feeling toward productservice Can distract receiver from counterarguing message Can result in wearoutljtendency of TVradio commercial to lose effectiveness when it is seenheard repeatedly More effective with lowinvolvement feeling products Chemiel Factors 0 O 0 Information received from personal in uence channels is generally more persuasive than information from mass media Importance of wordofmouth messages becoming more prevalent w growth of social media Differences in information processing Information from ads in print media newspapers magazines direct mail and Internet is selfpaced readers process ad at their own rate and can study it as long as they desire Information from broadcast media is externaly paced transmission rate is controlled by medium Advertisers often use print ads when they want to present detailed message w lots of information quotThe medium is the messagequot lmedium presents image that is independent of any message it contains Qualitative media effectljin uence medium has on a message Media environment can be created by nature of program in which commercial appears Study found that consumers react more positively to commercials seen during happy TV program than a sad one 0 Amount of advertising in a medium 0 Increasing concern to advertisers since there are so many messages in various media competing for consumer s attention
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