Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes Classics 20
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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If Jenna isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 10/14/15
92515 Lecture 0 Intro 0 Professor Gurval s Office Hours 0 Wednesday 1112 Friday 1011 and by appointment 0 Dodd 289E 0 Can meet Prof Gurval Wednesdays at lunch after his office hours 121 email him about it o Readings lecture outlines reading outlines practice exams paper prompts etc posted on CCLE 92815 Lecture 1 Origins of Rome Myth and History Bring Livy book to Section this Thursday what do we mean by ancient Rome How do we define or identify Roman culture Where is Rome 0 Italy I Bounded by the Alps not impenetrable but slowed the tribes coming from the north Apennines central mountain range backbone of Italy I thick forests fertile pastures volcanoes active fertilized the area added to Italy s agricultural prosperity 0 Regions of Italy I Etruria North Etruscans and Umbrians had partitioned off northern Italy I Latium Central Latins and Sabines Includes Rome I Campania South Greeks Oscans and Samnites lots of immigrationsettlement from other areas I Latins dominated and many of the other cultures were lost 0 Origins of the City of Rome 0 Bronze Age ca 16001100 BCE I Apennine Culture I knowledge of metalwork tools weaponsa dn ornaments of bronze I halfmoon handled pottery I cremation became the norm instead of inhumation 0 Iron Age ca 900700 BCE I extraction of metal from ore I harder tools and weapons 0 Villanovan CUlture I beginning of urbanization 0 Sources of Knowledge Myth and Archaeology I The seven hills of Rome eg Palatine Hill 0 Palatine Hill 0 evidence of earliest settlement post holes for huts iron age huts from the 8th century BCE would be the home of the Roman emperors the word Palatine gave rise to our word palace and Italian word palazzo I Access to waterto the sea is v important for cities to grow and thrive in the case of Rome they had the Tiber river 0 Roman Traditionhow the Romans viewed their own history 0 Founding of the City o Romans associate themselves with the destruction of Troy in the Trojan War 0 Roman Names latin name and modern name 0 Historian Livy roman name Titus Livius ca 59 BCE17 CE Born in Padua ancient Patavium in norther Italy town founded by Trojan Hero Antenor not an aristocrat from Rome outsider he narrates events of a distant past reliability of ancient evidence is questionable Oral and written tradition helped history survive Livy is famous because he survives and took a long time to write his histories aware that his sources may not be reliable or credible historical context of his life he s writing after the assassination of Julius Caesar Writes for most of Caesar Augustus reign 142 books 35 survive today include from the origins of Rome to Livy s own day Motivations for writing history the best medicine for a sick man wants to help his fellow man imagines himself as a physician and his readers as patients Imagery of architecture readers as spectators he associates his stories with the monuments of Rome his stories are a construction of his own day 0 Caesar Augustus 63 BCE 14 CE absolute ruler after Julius Caesar considered first Roman Emperor 0 Myths of Aeneas Trojan From east parents had a lot of money loser of a great battle his descendents led to the founding of rome parents prince for father Anchises Goddess for mother Venus Aphrodite to the Greeks Carried his father and led his son out of Troy symbol of piety and family values made it to Italy his wife did notgt Married Lavinia daughter of king Latinus Founded the city of Lavinium one of few stories where a woman becomes prominent Son Ascanius 0 also called uusgteponmous ancestor of the family of lulius Caesar who associates himself with Aeneas and by c founds the city of Alba Longa o Numitor and Amulius Descendents of Ascanius and Aeneas Amulius overthrew Numitor and killed his sons Rhea Silvia daughter of Numitor 0 made a vestal virgin can t have sex or marry by Amulius 0 also named Ilia Ilium is the ancient name of Troy 0 raped by Mars the god of war 0 rape as a recurrent theme that ends up benefiting man and the culture whether that is by the bearing of a child or by the rape causing political change 0 has twins Romulus and Remus o abandoned on the Tiber River 0 suckled by shewolf in Latin Lupa I Lupa becomes slang for a woman without a husband looked down on by society prostitute o Founding of a City I different sites o Palatine Hill Romulus o Aventine Hill Remus one brother saw six vultures first the other saw 12 later I both believed the vultures were an omen making them king of a new city fighting ensued Remus was killed and Romulus became king of the new city bearing his name Rome 0 Sabine Women I Raped and taken as wives during battle I for once women are the agents of change I intervened in the battle saying that if one side one they would lose their fathers and if the other side one they would lose their husbands I The enemies stopped fighting so the Sabine women became the wives of the original population of Rome 93015 Lecture 2 Familv Reliqion and Societv 0 Family ideals in the 1950s in the US reflected those of Rome 0 one head of the family the father 0 dutiful children and wife 0 Roman Family 0 Latin familia o husband wife and all dependents both free and slave and all property 0 paterfamilias head of the family father I legal rights over children I Latin children liberi the free my free property not really distinguished from slaves I had right to whip imprison sell into slavery or even kill children at least in early Rome I later rights over the woman would remain with her father and not transfer to her husband once she married 0 gens larger units or clans of families elite aristocratic families political religious and military power boasted lineage from the gods Julia gens family of Julius Caesar from lulus son of Aeneas descended from Venus I Antonia gens family of Mark Antony Anton son of Hercules 0 Roman Names elite men 0 3 names I Praenomen before the name only about 15 Marcus Gaius Lucius Publius Quintus I Nomen the name often ended in ius ex I Cognomen various origins such as 0 Occupation Pictorpainter Physical characteristics Nasothe nose Mental qualities Origin or Ethnicity Special qualities exhibited by the family I Second Cognomen received as military or political honors o Quintus Fabius Maximus CUNCTATOR the Delayer 0 Names or Roman Women Single name Julia Fabia Cornelia Aemilia and Octavia simply feminine noun of family name eg if Julius Caesar had daughters they would all be Julia emphasizing that they were property of the father Fabia daughter of the family of the Fabii More than one daughter 0 eg lunia Tertia nicknamed Tertulla the little third 0 Social Class distinctions o citizens and foreigners 0 free and slave o elite ruling class and a dependent class I patron patronus and client cliens every morning clients and slaves would pay respects to masters or patrons clients treated similar to slaves political distinctions I Romulus first king of Rome 0 creates elite families and calls them Patres fathers who served as his Council of Elders later first Senators of Rome 0 patrician Latin patres o plebeian Latin plebs in early Rome they did not have rights 0 Struggle of the Orders I patricians vs plebeians I by tradition polarized opposition noble and ignoble master and client rich and poor I dichotomy between two classes I more elite infighting rather than class warfare I as in most cultures gaining money made you gain power 0 State Religion 0 origins I Numa Pompilius Sabine 0 second king of Rome adopted solar calendar organized state religion established peace Temple of Janus tradition of closing and reopening its doors based on whether the city was at war or in peace 0 Roman Religion I Paganism heathen a person lacking religion and civilization one who fails to acknowledge God and the Bible modern prejudice sees Roman Religion as empty emotionless and insincere Major religions of the 21st century have clear dogma formal creed and written history In Rome there was a deep respect for institutions contractual relationship 0 contractbargain between men and gods 0 emphasis on obligations and duties 0 Roman Gods not so much beliefs and personal convictions achieved by 3 actions 0 prayer 0 sach ce o divination I various cultural influences native ltalic Greek Etruscan etc I Greek ZeusRoman Jupiter I Domestic Gods Genius ancestor former master protective spirit of family Genius of individuals cities and public welfare Juno female spirit Penates plural no singular divine spirits protected family wealth Lares pair of young men associated with farms and fields Manes spirits of the dead honored during festivals honored parentes 0 Roman Priesthoods I Flamen oldest burners of offerings 15 priests supervised individual cults 3 major and 12 minor flamines one was Flamen Dialis Priest ofJupiter Flamens wore heavy woolen cloak Iaena and leather skull cap galerus couldn t ride horse touch goat and other restrictions I Augur augeo to increase originally 3 later 15 members of a college collegium interpreted the will of the gods paid attention to birds flight eating habits singing etc I Pontifex ponti ces from Latin pons bridge originally 5 later 15 members of a college just meant a group of priests Pontifex Maximus leader of the Pontifexes supreme rulers of religious and civil laws approved religious calendar decided when year ended consecrated temples supervised marriages wills etc I Female Priestess Vestal Virgins cult of Vesta goddess of fire and hearth o 6 Vestals chosen at young age 610 inducted by Pontifex Maximus served 30 years not allowed to marry or have sex 0 if they broke their vows they would be buried alive 0000 o Altar of the Augustan Peace after Augustus return from war in Spain and Gaul I monument of Caesar Augustus I Restored by Benito Mussolini in the 1930s 10215 Lecture 3 Orqanization of Space and Time 0 The Greeks thought of their world as three continents Africa Asia and Europe 0 Romans thought of the world as rounda globe 0 Silver coin denarius from 56 BCE has globe in center surrounded by one large wreath and three small wreaths represented the triumphs of Pompey the Great on three continents Spain Asia Africa 0 Roman Space 0 binary demarcations I Main division 0 the city urbs Rome 0 home domIgtdomestic o outdoors foris gtforeign o the world orbis terrarum City of Rome vs Latin towns Italian vs provincial Roman or Barbarian I Final cultural demarcation city urbanurbanus vs country ruralrusticus 0 Roman citizen I originally free inhabitant in the city I later participation in judicial process I allowed to determine trial in Rome itself I some of these perks were afforded to people in the surrounding cities I everyone born free 0 Space defined by ethnic and cultural identity I Latin Sabine Etruscan Greek Oscan Samnite 0 Lines of differentiation I Domestic space 0 Greece female quarters women sequestered men and women dined apart 0 Rome no female quarters men and women dined together no children s quarters 0 Roman House Plan I atrium large central space sometimes had compluvium a hole in the ceiling that brought in air light and water for the household vestibulum entrance fauces throat narrow passageway rooms lining the walls around the atrium and other main rooms dining room wealthygtoverlooked garden not wealthygtmaybe looked at a picture of a garden I cubicula bedrooms not well lit used only for sleeping and sex 0 Public Space I belonged to adult male citizens I excluded children women foreigners and slaves I Forum center of the city politically commercially and socially 0 Forum Boarium Latin bos bovis early cattle market near the Tiber River Romans associated it with Hercules and has several temples nearby 0 Temple of Hercules Victor 0 Temple of Portunus 0 Imperial Fora the time of Caesar Augustus Nerva Trajan adjoining Forum Romanum built by later emperors 0 Forum of Trajan Markets of Trajen 0 Forum of Augustus 0 Forum Romanum main forum small flat land or plain marshy almost a swamp original forum of the Republic site of court trials and public assemblies also market shops taverns gladiatorial ceremonies and games I Lacus Curtius pond of Curtius o lacus small pool of water not stagnant but rises and falls 0 Sabine Leader mettius Curtius got his horse stuck in the pond and was attacked by Romans but he escaped Livy 11213 0 associated with conflict and later death and sacrifice o Varied myths associated with gensfamily Curtii I Comitium assembly space 0 sacred space inaugurated for citizens to assemble when summoned by magistrates o in front of Senate House north of Roman Forum I Curia Senate House 0 original building attributed to third king Tullius Hostilias o destroyed in 52 0 Julius Caesar planned a new building 0 later dedicated by Augustus called the Curia Julia 0 later converted to a church I Sacra Via sacred way solemn pathway through forum 0 lead to Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill 0 site of Roman triumphs and returning conquerors I Pomoerium boundary 0 city marked y formal boundary made by plough of oxen within the sacred part of the city 0 expanded as the city expanded I Campus Martius Field of Mars 0 public field campus originally consecrated to Mars outside the pomoerium training ground for soldiers assembly for male citizens developed by Caesar Augustus Ara Pacis included Mausoleum pantheon baths of Agrippa Saepta Julia amphitheater o Terminus god of boundaries I boundary stone sunk into earth marked out a piece of land identified distance or ownership I Terminalia festival on February 23 neighbors came together to lay flowers on boundary stones etc I idea of private ownership important in Rome 0 Janus another god of boundaries particularly of doonNaysthresholds I 2 faces one looking ahead and the other behind I January named after him I superstitions of thresholds 0 good luck or bad 0 carry bride over threshold 0 enter house with right foot 0 wishes for crossing threshold Roman Time 0 early Rome I no concept of time in terms of divinity and history Fluorescence Dupont I only human time mattered I only cared when Rome was founded not the earth I Rome traditionally said to have been founded 753 BCE I counted time from the year Rome was founded o Sundial I incised lines on quadrant indicated the hours I Solare o constructed by Caesar Augustus on Campus Martius o largescale sundial o Gnomon marker of sundial measured lengths of days and nights by shadows projected by the sun 0 includes obelisk that was originally erected in Heliopolis by Egyptian Pharaoh to the god of the Sun Ra o obelisks were taken by Romans from Egypt as spoils of war 0 Roman Calendar I displayed on walls of temples I not originally public controlled by officials and priests I recorded months and days of the year I originally a lunar calendar based on the moon I Months 0 originally had 10 months 0 September gtSeptem means seven 0 Octobergt Octo means eight 0 NovembergtNovem means nine 0 DecembergtDecem means ten Later 12month calendar of 355 days intercalary month after February 23 Julius Caesar in 46 BCE changed it to be just about our calendar including leap year I Days 0 8 day market cycle 0 3 basic days of the month 0 Kalends first day of the month 0 Nones fifth or seventh day of the month 0 Ides 13th or 15th day of the month 0 Festivals I Robigalia for Robigus the god of Mildew I Lupercalia the wolfmen for fertility I Saturnalia for Saturn winter solstice gift giving exchanging of roles
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