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Unit 2: Week 1 and 2 notes

by: Jessica Niswonger

Unit 2: Week 1 and 2 notes CH 186 - 01

Jessica Niswonger
GPA 3.5
Found of Inorganic Chemistry
Philip W Crawford (P)

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Week one (Wednesday and Friday) and week 2
Found of Inorganic Chemistry
Philip W Crawford (P)
Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Niswonger on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 186 - 01 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Philip W Crawford (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Found of Inorganic Chemistry in Chemistry at Southeast Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
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Scanned by CamScanner gig my 1 5 Fm an mm WW r n n 7 100515 Main Group Chemistry Scanned by CamScanner 100515 Main Group Chemistry Halogens TAB W Properly Valence ciccu39un Cnl ll ignrmiun a t39lt llillg puim 1 BF 7 1H linil ing lmim Ci 7 35 5C 183 Al l c quot quot km PaIIcycllnw gm Ycllmvgrecn gm Redbrrm39n liquid Darkviolet WP Der metallic looking solid Atomic mdiua pm 72 9 l 4 133 mic nulim l pmH 36 IR 195 216 hmixutim enemy r 1 3t 1003 Wynn IGSU I5l H J Elm lrnncgmivi5 40 30 28 25 Standard rcductiun 137 L36 1 n7 05139 pnlenliul tV Bond enthalpy lenu39IlJquot I50 2427 1925 151 U Halogens Some 00111111011 compounds of halogens oxidation numbers quot h v w an 1 39 u 5 939 TABLE 23 w 5 V j y Mi r Cl Br I Compound F HCI l HBI 1 HI 1 Hydrogen halide HF 1 BrZO 1 I J 1305 5 Oxides OF2 1 C130 1 1 C10 4 8102 4 CIon 71 Oxmjcids HFO 1 HCIO l HBI O 1 HIO 1 Hc1023 HCIO3 5 HBrOJ 5 H103 5 HCIOJ 7 HBrOJ 7 HSth 7 w 391 it jQ 1 39 lh L a 1 Ag 7 Scanned by CamScanner 100515 Main Grmm Cl mmlstry B Reactions of the Elements I m 4 Pi mamaquot v quota w r39 y e 39rnb39i m g ithe mEtaig ahde iml x glqwirlla 2594ja q3h 39 of hydrogenfh39a39l il39Pa39Fre Eidicmom poundsDacidicmiraqluemis q i r 5 am erp r orduct H39F hand HGl r canrb e39prggglgeds 4x rap t 39 glfllp ospho roqsa j 0 632 R quot9 quot w w 39 r f nxwlgem i 111LELBgr3lf PI3s at roomter11PeLaiU re xvii 3 quotrfW iW 39W r m gays39oatgi2F39aq H39iOC ii39 z ygen difIU omi39 e I 1 39W H aTQTI OHaHH SC aq39 3 H120 quotgis fg 60H39aq 9 Br0339aqln 539B39I39aq 31 gt h 71333quotaquotq f3gt39l a39q 75I39aq Wk 51 k x we i n m i 7 IReaetlons are39 lsumular exceptawnthchlorine is s light39ly diff ren r a w Ith alkahrandr 39lkalme earth metgls l vfrc PL FL V r quotr r Equot 7 Ir 7 M3 v H 39 a F I m 1 jM EIM Eailkai l39i 39e39earthmetal le39CI End Scanned by CamScanner Lr ko 100515 Main Group Chemistry React with other metals Selected examples 0 2Fes 3F2g 9 2FeF3s white 2Fes 3CI2g a 2FeCl3s dark brown 2Fes 38r2l 9 2FeBr3s reddish brown 0 Cus F2g gt CuF2s white Cus Cl2g gt CuCl2S yellow brown Cus Br2g 9 CuBr2s black Fes 25 9 Fel2s greYl 2Als 3021 9 2AlCl3s 2Als 38r2 a AlzBrss 2Als 3120 a Alzl lS WM 312g 9 WF6g colourless Ws 3Cl2g a WClss dark blue 0 Ms 38r2l a WBrss dark blue Scanned by CamScanner thl 100715 Maiquot Group Chemistry and Bonding Theories t En Halog ens Reactions of the Elements The halogens also form a series of oxoacids with the following general fOTmU 353 HXO4 O HXO HXO HXQa hypohalous acid halous acid halic acid perhalic acid React with each other to form interhalogen species 0 Clzlg Fgg gt 2ClFlg o Cl2g Br2g gt 2CBrg 0 023 mg a 2Cls o Brzlg leg gt ZBrFlgl o emu 125 9 zlarls 0 ME leg 9 ZIP8 o The more electronegative elements will gain electron from the other More reactive halogens will displace less reactive halogens from certain compounds 0 ZMxlaq Cl2aq gt 2MClaq X2X Br I o 2Mlaq Br2aq a 2MBrlaq Izlaq O M alkali metal Element Reaction Flowcharts WC39a w F W 39 I x a x2 Na Fe 7 H2 5qu elf HFquot HF P 0H p OH39 F and PC l5 Scanned by CamScanner 7100715 Main Group Chemistry and Bonding Theories Properties of the Elements 0 Exist as monatomic spcies 0 Completely filled outeramost energy levels 39 Outer ns and np subshells are filled 0 Great chemical stability due to their electron configurations 39 High ionization energies 39 Electron affinities less that zero 0 To tendency to accept electrons 39 Not involved in natural biological processes 0 Fist compounds prepared in 1693 39 Requires very strong oxidizing agents ie F2 and 02 39 Example compounds 0 XeF4 xenon tetrafluoridle o XeOF4 xenon oxytetrafluoride to HArF argon fluorohydride Bondin 39 Theories Primarily covalent bonds Valence Bond Theory Hybridization of A tomic Orbitals o Hybridization of s and p Orbitals o Hybridization of s p and d Orbitals Hybridization of Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds Molecular Orbital Theory 0 Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals o 0 Molecular Orbitals 0 Bond Order 0 ll39 Molecular Orbitals 0 Molecular Orbital Diagrams Bonding Theories and Descriptions of Molecules with Del ocalized Bonding Scanned by CamScanner L L 100715 M 39 39 am Group Chemistry and Bonding Theories Atomic Review dz Queeniee S 9J5le 0 Quantum number related to shapes Need to know shapes and orientation of orbitals o O The name of P orbital tells you which axis it is on 39 Py lines up on y ect o Regardless of orbital nucleus lies right at node 39 Mode is place in the middle o 04 that look the same xyxzyZXZVZ Name tells us how the lobes are oriented Xz 4 lobes lie between axis I I Yz lies in y plane between axis 0 2 major lobes are along 2 axis 0 Donut ring is perpendicular to plane P aQMrbitwle Review a 93g 2 e Lobes line up along respective axns Scanned by CamScanner M97 11f015 Malquot GrOUlJ Chemistry and Bonding Theories d Qrtzitale Revlew 71 Molecular Geometry Review Molecular shape can be predicted by using the valenceshell electron pair repulsion HS EPR model A is the central atom surrounded by x B atoms an 31 2 5 5 quotT1 1quot C have mteger values of 2 to 6 w nous w 2 L juaiqg mvs Ljr r S itquot 7 Vquot I ii 3 kitlag a iii Ewan Vje rr A d 4h AB Im no 30 NM AB HlI Nll 39l lj Sui Mg t39l NIL SlJi xLi H M ML H lw llg S hln l hl t AH Sly Ha ht39l 0 Molecular shape has relationship to bonding 151 molecular shape 0 Theory helps us understand why they assume the shapes they do 0 VSEP R Scanned by CamScanner a r n 4 111 I 5 MMquot Gmun Chmmst and Bonding Theories Electron domains try to get as far apart as they can to minimize electron repulsion Molecular geometry that a molecule assumes is the one that minimizes electron to electron repulsion o What allows them to occupy the same orbital is that their electrons spin in the apposite direction 0 When you compare electron domains Electrons try to get as far apart as they can 39 This controls the shape 0 Have to understand how to represent molecules ABx X226 7 may sol l39lzC NoI an BE NH CIR 5071 an C C l Nl lg 311 chI 210 13 PCI IF 311R 13ng my SF Uta Tim The VSEPR Model Review The basis of the VSEPR model is that electrons repel each other Electrons are found in various domains and will arrange themselves to be as far apart as possible This minimizes repulsive interactions Lone pairs Single bonds Double bonds Triple bonds quot i oco 39 IP9 9 H 39l39 H i 39 H 1 single bond 3 single bonds 2 double bonds 1 double bond 1 lone pair 1 lone pair 4 electron domains 3 electron domajrls 2 electron domains w on central atom L1 on central atom j K on central atom Scanned by CamScanner 100715 Mi r r n Group Chemistry and Bonding Theories 32 E g k K ecu GinDomain Geometry and Molecular Geomeuy The MT r lllgements of the electron domains minimize repulsive interactions 2 electron domains Linear 3 electron domains Trigonal planar 4 electron domains Tetrahedral 5 electron domains Trigonal bipyramidal 6 electron domains Octahedral Scanned by CamScanner 1


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