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Notes from Class: Week One/Lecture One: 9/30/15

by: Brittney Hower

Notes from Class: Week One/Lecture One: 9/30/15 Art H 361

Marketplace > University of Washington > Art History > Art H 361 > Notes from Class Week One Lecture One 9 30 15
Brittney Hower
Italian Renaissance Art
Erin C. Griffin

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Syllabus notes: • The course theme is identity and self fashioning • Image identifications will show up on the midterm and final exams • For the image ID’s on these exams you will need to ident...
Italian Renaissance Art
Erin C. Griffin
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Hower on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art H 361 at University of Washington taught by Erin C. Griffin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Italian Renaissance Art in Art History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Art History 361 Italian Renaissance Art Notes from Class Week OneLecture One 93015 Syllabus notes The course theme is identity and self fashioning Image identifications will show up on the midterm and final exams For the image ID s on these exams you will need to identify the artist title material date location and provide two points of significance more than a plain fact ie tell why it is relevant to the course in terms of cultural political and or socioreligious contexts to explain the value of the object under discussion The final paper is a research project all of the info is on Canvas you can begin this project at any time Visual Analysis This is the study of looking at art for what it is line color texture material scale shape space composition and volume Lecture Notes 930 1527 the fall of Rome The Ottoman Empire 1453 what is known today as Istanbul This city fell to Muslim rule Ottoman rulers had the same goals as other rulers of the time finding selfidentity The concept of Italy as a body didn t exist until 1865 The Catholic Church was the dominant religion in Italy Still is Monastic communities Monks were considered God s soldiers Benedictines and Mendicants Mendicant communities were followers of St Francis Franciscan order who were usually male friars Iesuit missionaries were aware of the risk of becoming martyrs for spreading Christ s word There were also Protestant communities Lutheran Calvin and Anglican Church Rennaisance Rebirth Keywords to describe what was valued during this time families patronage humanism culture there was a renewed interest in Greek and Roman history Competing myths surfaced Lecture Notes 102 Civic Foundations Florence Siena Pisa Venice and Rome Florence Florence cathedral was the center of religion It was a commune run by the guild system There were 21 guilds who were elected periodically to work in the Palazzo Vecchio which was there center of government The Banking Guild was run by the Medici family who ruled for two centuries before becoming the official Dukes of Florence Etruscan Tuscany was derived from this word Cathedral Duomo Santa Maria del Fiore 12961436 Baptistry is a Romanesque style exterior revetment is made up of rounded arches white and green marble and was begin in 1059 its triparts signify the Trinity Father Son and Holy Spirit The Christians eventually took this back believing it was once a temple for Mars the Roman god of war All Florentine s were baptized in this structure It was probably not a temple but a bathhouse Renamed Baptistry of San Giovanni Saint John the Baptist The entire ceiling is covered in a mosaic associated with the Byzantine era Christians saw it as ancient Christian art Mosaic interior decoration used was called tesserae The Church itself had both groin and barrel vaults see images on Canvas as well as the duomo They associated themselves especially with St John the Baptist the Virgin Mary and Saint Zenobius all were considered patrons of the church They began construction of the church before they knew how to roof it all The church is in a Latin Cross shape see slides There was a Fresco made from 13561367 to demonstrate what they believed the church would look like which we can now compare to what it actually is Bell Tower Campanile by Giotto di Bondone constructed in 1334 Giotto started a trend for artists to add on to buildings which artists such as Donatello then followed The church was incredibly busy with services all day long and markets inside it when it rained The Republic Medici held the Palazzo della Signoria the Palazzo Vecchio 12981314 Reading Campbell and Cole 13001400 The Trecento Inheritance Vocabulary Holy Roman Empire consisted of the countries today known as Belgium Germany Switzerland and Austria and reaching all the way south to Florence and Siena During the 1400 s most of the wealth gathered in this northern empire which has continued through modern times This empire had a mercantile economy Papal States The area in Rome that the Pope ruled over spiritually and temporally Naples Naples was a city as well as a kingdom which made up the southern part of Italian territory encompassing the Lower Peninsula which had a mostly agrarian economy Sicily the island below Italy which during medieval times was ruled by dynasties out of the countries known today as Germany France and Spain Spogha Tesserae Signorie one sovereign leader and his followers led the city Verona Milan Piacenza Parma Ferrara and Rimini were examples of this type of leadership quotSignoriequot were typically found in the north Comuni Venice Bologna Genoa Florence Siena and Pisa were considered comuni which translates to commonwealths which were led by elected counsels and found mostly in central Italy Baldacchino definition honorific canopy Cenotaph Funerary Monument Memorial Piazza Forum Square Narthex wide foyer atrium Tabernacle chest used to hold remains relics Nave Clerestory Apse from the book a vaulted semicircular projection that marked the most holy part of the spacequot Transept Baptistry Traditional space used to baptize Give the first sacrament to infants Comuni found more importance typically in baptisteries than the signorie Cruciform Byzantine referring to a specific architectural style tradition Icons images of important religious figures such as saints originating from the eastern Mediterranean Buildings to know Basilica of San Marco Palazzo del Podesta Funerary Monuments of Cangrande Della Scala begun after 1329 and Mastino II begun 1345 The Cansignorio s rule is marked by assertion of power above that of any other elected leaders extremely coercive leadership Bonino da Campione Funerary Monument of Cansignorio della Scala 1376 Palazzo Pubblico of Siena This building served as a meeting chamber for the board that ruled the city of Siena they were known as the Ninequot and they lived in this palace during their time on the council Artworks to know Murals of Ambrogio Lorenzetti 1338 made for the Room of Nine Governors and Defenders of the Commune Sala della Pace inside the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena These murals depicted what the city would look like under good strong leadership and then juxtaposed it against how the city would look if it were under corrupt rule A third wall is known for two persons the depiction of Giustizia meaning justice and Ben Comunequot meaning Common Good The figure for Giustizia a woman holds two scales one that illustrates distributive power and one that is commutative Distributive controls rewards and punishments while Commutative solves altercations Artists to know Giotto di Bondone 12671337 regionally viewed as an especially important artistic figure during the 13th amp 14th centuries Week 2 Lecture 1 10515 Revisiting Venice Review The Venetians set themselves apart from Roman society through an origin myth They believed their city was founded after the fall of Troy This was documented in the Iliad Trojan War Troy is taken by the Greeks All of the Trojans did not die according to the Venetians and some escaped and founded Venice so the Venetians see themselves as Trojans not Romans or Greeks Venetian architecture some rounded Roman arches but the onion topped domes are more Byzantine not part of the GrecoRoman tradition Greek cross in Saint Mark s Basilica Architecture in government is more out of Africa Doge s Palace for example is constructed similarly to Great Iwan Hall of justice Cairo 13331334 Competition primarily through painting and a bit through sculpture Roman populous Rome became seat of the Roman Empire The city of Rome lost a huge percentage of population after the fall of the Roman Empire relocated power to Constantinople from Rome Yet this is still the society to beat Ancient Roman Forum became Campo Vaccino Cow Field Living among and with ancient roman artifacts Popularity of visiting Rome Mirabilia Vrbisquot learn the narrative of Romulus and Remus and ancient artifacts and structures history Aeneas a Trojan is a man who escaped Troy ended up on banks of the Tiber and they found the city of Rome Old Saint Peter s 330 CE Rome built over Peter s grave Peter who Jesus told he d build his church on this rock Peter This church was torn down during the Renaissance When we arrive in the 1300 s this city is a city in religious chaos one Pope moved so a second pope was elected and this caused a schism The Great Schismquot 13781917 Then a third pope in Pisa No religious security because their pope wasn t necessarily recognized by the rest of the Christian World New St Peter s was built in 16th17th century Paintings Cimabue Madonna di Santa Trinita Maesta is Tempera and Gold leaf on wood 12601280 Florence Cimabue Giorgio Vasari wrote about Cimabue he gives invaluable info about artists Cimabue doesn t fit comfortably in the Renaissance he s a genius but not quite caliber of other R artists Cimabue taught by the Greeks in Santa Maria and he is apprenticed but surpasses his masters Compare Madonna and Child Enthroned from mid 13th century to Cimabue s Madonna similar depth the faces are almost identical look like same gene pool direct contact with Christ Child s face but in Cimabue s work the Madonna s toe is over the step bringing her into our space usually she is encapsulated in her throne it s like she is leaving the throne coming towards you delicacy of shadowing both artists use chrysography to map out the clothes tiny details the lines show how the fabric is movingtwisting Maniera Greca Greek Manner usually green was used to create skin tone with peach and brown over top Crucifixion tempera and gold leaf on wood 1270 Arezzo At this moment Pisa in sculpture Pisano is working on the Pisa Baptistry looking at the sarcophagi to recreate human bodies as closely as possible People are actively using the styles around them and interchanging them it isn t this happened then this happened Christus Triumphans was how Christ was portrayed where he appears oating rather than hanging from cross eyes open head up Pisa 12301240 Christus Patiens Cimabue changes the way that Christ is portrayed after he looks like he is hanging closed eyes head down There was a precedent in Byzantine in 1209 for the Christus Patiens Rinascimento Rebirth Giotto di Bondone Ognissanti Madonna All Saints Madonna Tempera and gold leaf on wood ca 1310 in Florence Many of the sights where Cimabue worked coincide with where Giotto worked Also might be a construct of Vasari himself to show competition Epitaph of Cimabue Cimabue held supremacy in the field of painting while he lived now he holds it among the stars of heavenquot Dante Alighieri wrote the Divine Comedy The Inferno Purgatory Heaven In Dante s Purgatorio he wrote about Cimabue and explains how his fame fades because of Giotto Giotto is really the start of something brand new In Cimabue s Madonna the angels look like they are stacked instead of receding backwards while Giotto has sense of space and the angels are closer together sacrifices detail for special correctness some faces are entirely cut off because of other angel s halos There s a nod to the gothic style in Giotto s painting promotes delicacy of the woman Mary she takes up a lot of space gives sense of depth her garb is much softer and more realistic once was a brighter cobalt blue but degrades over time ultramarine blue made from stone more expensive than the gold leaf at the time ultra marine because it travels across the ocean to get to Italy Francesca Petrarca important artist to know the Madonna is a Petrarcan beauty his beloved is Laura from Laurel meaning knowledge is a blonde hair brown eyed beauty so in Italy tons of paintings during the Renaissance show blonde hair brown eyed beauties Greek madonna s all have similar nose aquiline nose the babies and children look like tiny adults Christ child is scary in a lot of cases formidable middle aged man in tiny body the most powerful human being ever to walk the earth struggled with how to portray them Giotto s Scrovegni Chapel Arena Chapel Padua Padova Called this because it s built on foundations of ancient Roman arena the chapel is still there to this day Kiss of Judas Lamentation dead Jesus is held by his mother Mary similar to Madonna paintings but this time Christ is dead Pliny the Elder 1St century Roman man wrote the Natural History he documents all sorts of things includes famous artists of Roman history stories about painters painter named Timanthes pinnacle of despair by covering the face of his forlorn figures allow your imagination to take over this narrative what is the expression of ultimate pain Or ultimate anger Giotto Scrovegni Chapel Fresco Envy and Hope are displayed through fake stone paintings Paragone debate argument between painters and sculptors painters can show color narrative action movement sculpture shows permanence austerity and ability to show body from all different side seeing Giotto play with multimedia and multi sensory all the mediums he has Giotto Scrovegni Chapel the Last Iudgment everyone s fate Fresco 1305 God the Father at center everyone to his right is saved and going to heaven his left facing down is going to hell people who are saved becoming decorously clothed on hell side we see bodies coming up different forms of punishment read Dante if you re interested Enrico Scrovegni Patron of these frescos Giving the Chapel to the Virgin Mary He was a banker and baking included actions that were considered against the laws of god like usury actually giving money back on the loan from 10 12 money being able to procreate considered blasphemy to get money back from a loan was selling your soul so if you commissioned art in chapels you could save yourself Indulgences out of purgatory set period of time allowed off of your time in purgatory visit pilgrimage sites take time years off of purgatory this is how Scrovegni protected his soul and soul of his family Connection between Judaism and banking Jewish people were destined to go to Hell because they did not believe in Jesus Christ so they were allowed to be bankers while Christians were not supposed to be bankers Scrovegni is shown perilously close to the bad side yet also at the side of Christ to show he s safe Giotto did not ever paint his own face into his paintings sometimes he would paint his name tho Siena Cathedral iconic striping carries into the interior space almost causes vertigo so much detail what originally sat on the altar Duccio competitor of Giotto created a massive work for the altar 13081311 measures just under 7 feet in height and 13 feet in width 6 foot tall seated Madonna new scale we haven t seen before this has been taken apart over time some details are gone back of the panel smaller imagery shows the different scenes of Jesus eventually being crucified and resurrected intimate view at Christ s trials moment he enters Ierusalem Gothic as a word was created by Vasari During the period referred to it as Nova new art City of Siena French connection because of trade route between Europe and Siena In Entry to Jerusalem Last Supper halos cover everyone not individual we think the red head is Iudas someone who is breaking bread with Jesus Jesus is holding bread and Iudas is holding nothing John the Evangelist laying at Iesus side close to Jesus youngest Competition between Duccio and Simone Martini and Lorenzetti


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