Week 7 notes
Week 7 notes ANTH 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Review 1 Callitrichids DO NOT have a tapetum lucidum 2 Defining morphological trait of the skull shared by all primates is a petrosally derived auditory bullae o Haplorrhine Pongo gt gorilla gt Pan gt hominin O Hominoid all humans and apes living and dead 0 Pongo orangutaans I SE asia I Extremely sexually dimorphic o Males are larges arboreal animals 0 78kg v 36kg I Bimaturism amp 39Noyau39 Social system 0 2 strategies of being a male 0 Females in small territory w large males keeping away other males 0 Or staying quotsub adultquot smaller sneakier allowing forced copulation o Gorilla gorillas I Africa 3 species I Extreme sexual dimorphism I Malemultifemale groups not universal I No meat eating but NOT vegetarian I Sympatric with chimpanzees in many parts of Africa 0 Pan troglodytes chimpanzees I Africa I Fruit dominated by omnivorous I Multimalemultifemale groups I Strong malemale bonds I Social customs I Tool use I Group warfare 0 Pan Paniscus bonobos I Africa I Fruitdominate omnivorous I Multimalemultifemale groups I Strong femalefemale bonds and motherson bonds I Use of nonreproductive sex to bond I No habitual tool use in wild knucklewalking gorilla amp Pan 0 Hominin all human and ancestors Primate behavior and ecology o Primatology study of nonhuman primates o Behavioral ecology study of behavior both evolutionarily and naturally 0 Critical data for studying wildsemiwild populations 0 Home range total span of travel 0 Core area spend majority of time 0 Territory part of home range that you actively defend Group size and composition Number malefemale children Activity budget how they spend their time Diet Dispersal and philopatryone sex goes to join another group Reproductive development and life history 0 Social relationships Sociobiology 0 ED Wilson understand social behavior in terms of individual fitnessreproductive success 0 All patterns of behavior as adaptations Behavioral ecology 0 Tested and refine aspects of sociobiological history 0 Phenotypic traits including observed behaviors are not necessarily the direct result of natural selection 0 EX infanticide o Behavioral adaptation strategy in male primates o If females are investing in infants that are not his so by killing it frees female to mate with him Primate social systems 0 Noyau male with isolated females 11 groups Cooperative breading group one breeding female w many males Multimalemultifemale groups Multilevel society male w females and groups of these 0 Fissionfusion society females who travel alone w males that go in and out Why be social 0 Benefits Access to mates Defend against predators o Cooperation Advantages in Betweengroup competition 00000 0000 0 Costs 0 Withingroup competition Dominance hierarchies Priority of accessgt who gets the quotxquot if there isn39t enough quotxquot to go around Established relationships help limit fights Dominant v submissive relationships Despotic v linear Rank has consequences Not set in stone Not always male Intrasexual competition v intersexual selection Intrasexual 0 Physical or bluff combat Sperm competition Pursuehold high rank Alternate male strategies Infanticide Costly signaling OOOOO o Intersexual 0 male coercion 0 Physical intimidation of females 0 Infanticide 0 Female choice 0 Physical ornaments 0 Behavior Scramble v contest competition 0 How are resources distributed in time and space 0 Different sources are distributed differently O Influences living strategies 0 Leaves low energy high energy to be digested I More readily available 0 Fruit high energy quotwantsquot to be eaten I Limited in time and quantity 0 Insects high energy but need to be caught 39 Exception social insects 0 Meat high quality but high demand 0 How does this effect behavior 0 Traveling alone w offspring to limit competition 0 Groups work together to get resources and defend them 0 Diet of primate determines what type of group they39ll be in What shapes primate social systems 0 Food competition 0 Reproduction O Mating opportunities 0 Infant careprotection females are more concerned with resources and infant needs males are more concerned with reproduction and female distribution Fissionfusion its complicated o Chimps bonobos and spider monkey 0 Female association vary with food abundance o Favor high quality food 0 Female hierarchy 0 Hard for males to trackmonitor females 0 So males 0 Cooperate with other males to defend large community territory 0 Compete for mating opportunities with other males Social Systems and morphology o w greater variance in reproductive success among malesgt greater sexual dimorphism in body size and canine size 0 Testis sizesperm competition more relevant to Multimalemultifemale society Females 0 Reproductive errors are more cstly for females 0 Females exhibit choice 0 Extrapair or extragroup copulation O Selective copulation around ovulation O Dispersal just leave 0 Strategic copulation Cooperation within social systems 0 Infant careprotections o Detectmob predators 0 Hunting o Coalitions O Defendcontrol food resources 0 Defendcontrol mating opportunities Inclusive fitness 0 rcoefficient of relatedness probability that you will share an allele with another individual 0 Higher R greater overall genetic similarity o Kin Selection animals behaving in preferential ways towards genetic relatives 0 Hamilton39s rule rbgtc O rcoefficient of relatedness O bfitness benefits of behavior 0 cfitness cost of behavior Circumstances that favor cooperation 0 Ultimate or evolutionary explanations O Relatives are likely to benefit inclusive fitness 0 Both participants benefit Mutualism 0 When there are repeated encounters 0 Opportunities for Reciprocity 0 Can track good partners v moochers favor or punish o Reconciliation mechanisms become important 0 Proximate explanation O Feels good to help 0 Stressful to see others in trouble Theories on primate intelligence 0 Ecological intelligence 0 Spatial memory 0 Location and status of food resources 0 Extractive foraging technology culture 0 Acquisition of learned skillsbehaviors O Difficult to acquire foods 0 Social or quotMachiavellianquot intelligence 0 Ability to track complex social relationships 0 Deception and cooperation
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