Week 9 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Chapter 9 Cognitive Development in Preschool Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational Stage 27 years old Symbolic function improves and language becomes more complex Pretend symbolic play becomes more complex 0 Ex using banana as a phone pretend roles such as doctor or grocery clerk 0 Children with imaginary companions are more social and creative 0 Pretend play allows kids to practice I Language skills practice with new words syntax pragmatics I Adult roles understanding social expectations I Dealing with emotions and con icts I Social skills More errors 0 Piaget focused on errors in thinking such as I Appearance Reality Distinction children concrete in thinking assume if appearance changes so do underlying qualities Ex if put on mask person changed to the person with a mask I Lack of Conservation do not understand that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement physical appearance of objects I Why do kids have these problems Cannot decen ter 0 Decentration ability to focus on two aspects of reality or dimensions of a problem simultaneously 0 Instead display centration focus on single aspect of reality problem 0 Have not mastered reversibility process of mental undoing or reversing action 0 But even at 4 years old children can be trained to conserve o Egocentrism tendency to view world solely from one s own perspective I 3 Mountains Task Children assume everyone sees what they see from their perspective I Also egocentric psychologically think everyone has same thoughts feelings desires as they do Are children really as egocentric as Piaget thought 0 No I Mountain task too complicated On simpler tasks children appears less egocentric 0 Ex dog cat card experiment 0 What about psychological egocentrism I Gradual reduction over toddler preschool and early childhood Gopnik researcher broccoli vs crackers o 12 month old gave the researcher food that the child prefers o By 18 months child gives the researcher food that the researcher prefers Theory of Mind Knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and in uences behaviors 0 When born not fully developed but developed at 1St year of life 0 Gradual increase in understanding from infancy through the preschool years At age 3 rudimentary ToM but do not understand that actions are based on individual perceptions of reality that can differ o Often studied using false belief tasks I Sticker and monkey example I 3 year old fail 45 year old pass By age 4 start understanding that beliefs may not match reality but still can in uence actions 0 Attempts at deception increase become more complex Theory of Mind Continued 4 year old theory of mind still incomplete 0 Do not understand that people are thinking even when it is not obvious I 4 year olds think you are thinking the EXACT same thing as them Factors that contribute to development of ToM 0 Language development has a big impact I More the language to think abut thinking ability to think about it more 0 Pretend Play I Complex pretend play kids are better at ToM 0 Social Experience I Secure attachment to mother predicts better ToM because mother spends more time talking to children and commenting on their mental state I Having siblings that are still kids child age siblings do better on false belief tasks I Talk with siblings and see that people think different things and have different days than themselves I Parents help kids learn vocab by refining words and saying word in many sentences Preschool Language Development Vocab continues to grow rapidly o 1015000 words by 6 years old I 10 new words every single day 0 Fast Mapping connecting a new word with its meaning after only brief encounter I So hear word make hypothesis use word and then see feedback to see if it s right I Assume new word is the whole object and not just the part I Use shape of object to learn 0 Syntactical Bootstrapping figure out meaning of words by observing how they re used in structure of sentence using syntax to figure out what word means even 23 yr olds use it Sentences slowly become more complex and less holographic 0 Children can say all words in sentence 0 Around 3 start using grammatical modifiers Overregulation applying rules of grammar to exceptions where rules do not apply 0 Ex saying Daddy goedquot instead of Daddy wentquot gooses instead of geese o Relatively rare more likely with words use less often I Error to word not used word that much Begin mastering pragmatics of language 0 Louder voice if speaking to someone further away 0 Change voice when explaining things 0 Learn politeness o By 4 adjust talk to fit age gender and social status of listener Effects of the Environment on the Language Development Poverty Children living in poverty 0 Hear fewer words I By age 4 heard 14 million less words I Are spoken to and interacted with less often I Less likely to be read to o Are more likely to hear simple sentences and prohibitions such as quotnoquot and do not to thatquot 0 Have smaller vocabulary I Difference begin early slower verbal processing at 18 months learn fewer words between 18 to 24 months lower SES at 18 months in language when regular SES is at 24 months I Lower IQs by age 5 less ready for school 0 For children to not fall behind talk a lot with them
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