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Chapter 4

by: Mariana Patino

Chapter 4 Psyc 100

Mariana Patino
U of I
Intro to Psychology

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About this Document

Color coded lecture notes for Shereen Beilstein. Green = chapter Orange = Section Pink = vocal Blue = default color for all notes
Intro to Psychology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariana Patino on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 100 at University of Illinois taught by Travis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Illinois.


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Date Created: 10/14/15
Review just noticeable difference able to detect change in stimulus signal to noise ratio can change smallest change in stimulus Ch 4 Eyes process visual stimuli Visual Syst 3 Major Components 1 The eye a captures light and convert into neural messages 2 Visual pathways a modify and transmit those message from eye to brain 3 Visual centers of brain a interpret messages in way useful for guiding behavior Light form of electro mag E Only small range visible to human eye 2 Physical dimensions of light waves Light intensity how much E light has determines brightness Light wavelength length of wave determines color Hue color of light Parts of Eye Cornea vitreous humor pupil iris lens retinal arteries and veins optic nerve blind spot fovea retina sclera Focusing Lens Accommodation lens change shape to focus light into back of eyes Helps eyes focus on objects near or far nearsightedness clear when close but blurry when far farsightedness clear when far blurry when close degree of nearsightedness depends on shape of eye Visual Transduction retina converts light E gt neural activity Photoreceptors specialized cells in retina that are in charge of transduction sensory receptor The axons that run from the retina to the brain converge at optic disc hole in retina where optic nerve fibers exit Visual Transduction Photoreceptors Retina has 2 kinds of photoreceptors Rods Have 100125 mill rods Key role in night amp peripheral vision Sensitive to dim light Cones 56 mill cones Key role in day and color vision Sensitive to detail Concentrated in fovea Visual Pathways Optic nerve nerve that carries neural activity from retina to brain blind spot no photoreceptors where the optic nerve exits Optic chiasm half of each optic nerve s fibers cross over to the opposite side of the brain left visual field to right hemisphere and vice versa Visual Syst Putting it All Together Light E is picked up by lens TRansduced from E to neural sigs by rods and cones Neural sigs carried by optic nerve To thalamus and sent to visual cortex Visual Perception Color Objects appear colored bc they refract light from specific regs of visible spectrum Eye needs to work well to pick up color correctly Trichromatic theory 3 primary colors blue green red can be combines to make any color Riot of these 2 trypes of cones gives sensation of color doesn t account for afterimage afterimage when staring at one color for long time then look away see diff colored replica of same image greenpurple circle Color Blindness Inability to see some or all colors Dichromat make use with only 2 types of cones ie redgreen color Monochromat make use of only 1 cone sees shades of gray OpponentProcess Theory Visual elements sensitive to color regrouped into 3 pairs Redgreen Blueyellow Blackwhite Each one inhibits the other member of the pair Overloading one makes use see the reverse when switched Can t see Blindness inability to see lt20200 on Snellen Visual Perception Diff parts of brain process diff aspects of visual perception Perceive whole objects not isolated components Gestalt Principles Rules governing how we perceive objects as whole within overall context Proximity similarity continuity closure symmetry figure ground Proximity A space between objs A chance to see as sep than whole Similarity diff colors process as diff groups Closure Eyes fill in what s not there Continuity Perceive objs as whole even when blocked Symmetry Perceive symmetrical objs as whole Figureground make instantaneous decision to focus on what we believe is the central figure Visual Perception DEpth Ability to judge distance and 3D relations Monocular depth cues relies on 1 eye relative size texture gradient interposition linear perspective height in plane Light and shadow Binocular depth cues req both eyes stimuli health us judge depth Binocular disparity L and R eyes transmite diff info for near obj but see distant objs similarly Binocular convergence when looking at nearby objs eye will turn inward Amnesia Case Studies Sensation Principles Just noticeable difference JND the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect Weber s Law constant proportional relationship between JND and original stimulus when you can detect change Doctrine of specific nerve energies The sensation is determined by the nature of the receptor not the stimulus Sense receptors cells in eyes ears fingertips Stimulus light sound touch etc Pays attention to receipts and how it received stimuli Cross Modal Sense Senses are not independent amp crosstalk McGurk Effect visual info affects interpretation of auditory info Synesthesia people exp crossmodal sensation ie hearing colors tasting words etc color graphing see s as colors When senses meet brain After being transducer brains org sensory data into meaningful concepts Brains piece together sensory field what was there a moment ago moments from past Parallel processing in brain Parallel Processing process mult senses at once Bottom up processing whole is constructed from parts starts w activity in primary visual cortex followed by processing in assoc cortex Top down influenced by beliefs and expectations Able to ID things without clear direction start processing i assoc cortex followed by primary visual cortex Perceptual sets occur when expectations influence perceptions Perceptual hypothesis Perceptual constancy process we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions Helps us accurately interpret world Role of attention Selective attention choose which sensory inputs to focus on which to turn down Cocktail party effect hearing name in noisy room Inattentional blindness failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere Change blindness failure to detect large changes in one s environment


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