Chapter 19: Preventing Violence and Abuse
Chapter 19: Preventing Violence and Abuse HTH 100
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Health 100 Chapter 19 Preventing Violence and Abuse Young adults are disproportionately affected by violence and injury threatens emotional mental and physical health Violence The intentional use of physical force or power threatened or actual against oneself another person or a group or community that results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury death psychological harm maldevelopment or deprivation WHO de nition Intentional injuries those committed with intent to harm assaults homicides suicides three major types interpersonal violence collective violence and self directed violence Interpersonal violence intentionally using quotphysical force or power threatened or actualquot to in ict violence against an individual that results in injury death or psychological harm Homicide Murder or nonnegligent manslaughter killing another human 0 Majority caused by rearms 0 Over half of all homicides occur among people who know one another 23 friends and acquaintances 13 family members 0 Clear disparities across race and age young black males as victims and perpetrators has surged 0 Rates of homicide in the US are higher than in many other developed nanns Hate and BiasMotivated Crimes A crime committed against a person property or group of people that is motivated by the offender39s bias against a race religion disability sexual orientation or ethnicity 0 Fear of retaliation keeps many hate crimes hidden 60 may never be reported 0 Only 14 of those reported are reported by victims 0 Biasrelated crime referred to as ethno violence violence based on prejudice and discrimination among ethnic groups in the larger society 0 Prejudice An irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual group or race or the supposed characteristics of an individual group or race 0 Discrimination Actions that deny equal treatment of opportunities to a group of people based on prejudice o Prejudice and Discrimination stem from fear of change and a desire to blame others when forces such as the economy and crime seem out of control 0 Common reasons given to explain biasrelated and hate crimes Thrill seeking by multiple offenders through a group attack Feeling threatened that others will take their jobs or property or beset them in some way Retaliating for some real or perceived insult or slight Fearing the unknown or differences Domestic Violence the use of force to control and maintain power over another person in the home environment emotional abuse verbal abuse threats of physical harm and physical violence causes great risk for damage to personal health and wellbeing Causes NO single reason but alcohol abuse and having a history of family violence and marital dissatisfaction is often associated with it stress mental health issues economic uncertaintyfrustration jealousy issues of powercontrol gender roles issues with selfesteem are also among common reasons for this type of violence 0 Intimate Partner Violence physical sexual or psychological harm done by a current or former partner or spouse rape physical and psychological abuse stalking and other offense by an intimate partner 74 if all murder suicides involve an intimate partner forms are constant criticism verbal attacks displays of explosive anger meant to intimidate and controlling behavior abusers seek to intimidate and debase their partners control those who have experienced this violence are more likely to report depression dif culty in intimate relationships frequent headaches chronic pain dif culty with sleeping activity limitations poor physical health irritable bowel syndrome and other health problems Why don39t they leave nancially dependent on their partners fear of retaliation against themselves or their children hope that the situation will change with time cultural or religious beliefs forbidding divorce they still love their abuser Men 0 experience 830000 domestic violence assaults every year 0 gay men appear to be just as susceptible to male perpetrated violence as women in heterosexual relationships 0 men39s assaults tend to be less severe and less likely to end in fatality why don39t men report it humiliation fear no one will believe them they believe they deserve bad treatment not hitting back is a sign of honor strength or masculinity lack of awareness and support services 0 Cycle of violence Lenore Walker 1970 s explained predictable repetitive patterns of psychological andor physical abuse that seemed to occur in abusive relationships Tension Building prior to the abusive act includes breakdowns in communication anger psychological aggressions growing tensions fear Incident of acute battering after attack includes shock and denial about his behavior or may blame her for making him do it RemorseReconciliation quothoneymoonquot period batterer kind loving and apologetic swearing he will work to change behavior Criticized for simpli ed approach to a complex problem Battered woman syndrome a subgrouping of posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD very hard to summon the resolution to extricate herself most need effective outside intervention Child abuse and Neglect 0 Child maltreatment any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver that results in harm potential for harm or threat of harm to a child Child abuse acts of commission which are deliberate or intentional word or actions that cause harm potential harm or threat of harm to a child sexual psychological physical or any combination of these Neglect act of omission meaning a failure to provide for a child39s basic physical emotional or education needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm failure to provide food shelter clothing medical care or supervision or exposing a child to unnecessary environmental violence or threat No single pro le of a child abuser frequently the perpetrator is in hisher midtwenties without a high school diploma living at or below poverty level depressed socially isolated has a poor selfimage has dif culty coping with stressful situations or has experience violence and is frustrated by life It occurs at every socioeconomic level Health can be severely affected by psychological abuse assaults on personality character competence independence or general dignity as a human being Consequences of this abuse depression low selfesteem and a pervasive fear of offending the abuser abuse By 2030 the number of people over the age of 65 will exceed 75 million Thousands of adults over 60 are abused neglected or nancially exploited Many victims fail to report abuse because they39re embarrassed they feel guilty because someone has to care for them they suffer from dementia and aren39t aware of the abuse or they don39t want the abuser to get in trouble or retaliate by putting them in the nursing home Collective violence violence perpetuated by groups against other groups and includes violent acts related to political governmental religious cultural or social clashes Gang violence US communities face escalating threats from gang networks engaged in drug traf cking sex traf cking shootings beatings thefts carjacking and the killing of innocent victims caught in cross re 30 Responsible for 48 of US violence crime overall Increase risks for gang af liation 000 to 33000 gangs in the US w membership over 14 million 0 Friendships with delinquent peers lack of parental monitoring negative life events alcohol and drug use low selfesteem academic problems OOOOO low socioeconomic status alienation from family and society history of family violence 0 living in gangcontrolled neighborhoods 0 Why people join gangs 0 Sense of selfworth o Companionship 0 Security economic security through drug sales prostitution other types of criminal activity 0 Excitement Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives 0 All nations are vulnerable to domestic and international threats 0 Terrorist threats have caused effects on our economy travel restrictions additional security measures and military buildup 0 Emergency Preparedness and Response Division monitors potential public health problems such as bioterrorism chemical emergencies radiation emergencies mass casualties national disaster and severe weather also develops plans for mobilizing communities in case of emergency and provides information about terrorist threats 0 Department of Homeland Security works to prevent future attacks 0 FBI and other gov39t agencies work to ensure citizens health and safety OOO Unintentional injuries those committed without apparent intent to harm car crashes intent is not always completely clear and distinguishing cause and intent can be dif cult 1980 s US Public Health Service identi ed violence as a leading cause of death and disability and gave it chronic disease states indicating it was a pervasive threat to society Violent crimes involve force or threat of force include four offenses Murder and Nonnegligent manslaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Violence trends are dif cult to assess and there are huge disparities in crime rates based on race sex age socioeconomic status location crime type etc Over 50 of violent victimizations are not reported to the police Violence on Campus Campus shootings are on the rise and no age group is immune 25 percent of campus crimes in general are reported to any authority 95 percent of women who are sexually assaulted or raped never report the crime reasons of not reporting include concerns over privacy fear of retaliation embarrassment or shame lack of support perception of crime being to minor or they were at fault uncertainty of crime or if it was one What causes people to become violent offenders Community contexts Societal factors Religious beliefs and differences Political differences Breakdowns in the criminal justice system Stress What makes some individuals prone to violence Anger o A catalyst for violence 0 Comes from a triggering event or a person has learned that acting out in angry ways can get him or her what he or she wants 0 Tends to be an active attackoriented emotion they feel powerful and in control 0 Learning to assess quotself talkquot or beliefs that lead to anger is a big part of prevention 0 Have low tolerance for frustration and jump before thinking 0 Can be genetic or physiological 0 Typically angerprone people come from families that are disruptive chaotic and unskilled in emotional expression and where anger domestic violence and abuse occur regularly 0 Those who have been bullied in school are more prone to react with violence in future situations Aggressive behavior is often a key aspect of violent interaction Primary aggression goaldirected hostile self assertion that is destructive in nature Reactive aggression part of an emotional reaction brought about by frustrating life experiences Both most likely to are up in times of acute stress Substance Abuse Catalyst for violence Alcohol precedes over half of all violent crimes and is a major factor in domestic violence Men who are heavier drinkers are the most likely to be perpetrators of sexual violence Higher rates of alcohol use and violence among athlete populations Alcohol abuse is associated with physical victimization among males and sexual victimization among females on campuses Number of suicide attempts and completions are highly correlated to drugs and alcohol intake The Media Focuses on cause of violence 0 Too many highcapacity assault ri es and handguns and a faulty system of monitoring who has access to guns 0 Inadequate mental health resources 0 A daily dose of media violence Potential restrictions have been proposed to ban violent media for youth but the Supreme Court has steadfastly rejected them claiming a relationship between violent acts and the consumption of violent media has not been proven through Obama and several professional groups have called for more research Possibly future problems for interacting in realtime and facetoface communications Sexual Victimization Any situation in which an individual is coerced or forced to comply with or endure another39s sexual acts or overtures from harassment to stalking to assault and rape Long term consequences include fear sexual avoidance sleeplessness anxiety and depression Sexual Assault and Rape Sexual Assault any act in which one person is sexually intimate with another person without that person s consent simple touching to forceful penetration Rape penetration without the victim39s consent Aggravated Rape rape involving one or multiple attackers strangers weapons or physical beatings Simple rape rape penetrated by one person whom the victim knows and does not involve physical beating or use of a weapon Acquaintance Rape Any rape in which the rapist in known to the victim more common when drugs rapefacilitating drugs Rohypnol and Gamma hydroxybutyrate GHB or alcohol have been consumed by offender or victim campus party environment is a highrisk venue used interchangeably with date rape but date rape is thought to be inappropriate because it implies consensual interaction in an arranged setting Rape is among one of the most underreported crimes particularly on college campuses Rape on US Campuses In 1992 Congress passed the Campus Sexual Assault Victim39s Bill of Rights Ramstad Act 0 gave victims the right to call in offcampus authorities to investigate serious campus crimes and required universities to develop educational programs and notify students of available counseHng o more recent previsions of the act specify noti cation procedures and options for victims rights of victims and accused perpetrators and consequences including possible loss of federal support if schools do not comply o Asks all campuses to conduct climate surveys report rapes and provide assessments of prevention activities to the US Department of Education 0 President Obama has raised the issue of rape on campus to the level of a national crisis Marital Rape any unwanted intercourse or penetration obtained by force threat of force or when the spouse is unable to consent 30 states still allow exemptions from marital rape prosecution the judicial system may treat it as a lesser crime women under the age of 25 and those from lower socioeconomic groups are at higher risk women in cultures where male dominance is the norm and women are treated as property have higher rates of forced sex within con nes of marriage women who are pregnant ill separated divorced have higher rates women from homes where other forms of domestic violence are common and where there is a high rate of alcoholism or substance abuse have higher rates Child Sexual Abuse includes sexually suggested conversations inappropriate kissing touching petting oral anal or vaginal intercourse girls are at higher risk than boys The shroud of secrecy surrounding the problem makes it likely a number of cases is grossly underestimated Programs taught in school today that emphasize stranger danger may give children the false impression that they are more likely to be assaulted by a stranger 90 of child sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator and 70 abused by family members usually an adult male People who were abused as children bear spiritual psychological andor physical scars Victims at increased risk for anxiety disorders depression eating disorders PTSD and suicide attempts Victims are 25 more likely to experience teen pregnancy 30 more likely to abuse their own children and are much more likely to have problems with alcohol abusedrug addiction Sexual Harassment unwelcome sexual conduct that is related to any condition of employment or evaluation of student performance unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when dealing with employment or education power or even peers with deliberate or repeated humiliation based on sex gratuitous comments jokes questions remarks about clothing or bodies sexuality or past sexual relationships unwanted touching unwarranted sexrelated comments or subtle pressure for sexual favors Social Contributors to Sexual Violence societal assumptions and traditions can promote sexual violence Trivialization thinking rape committed by husbandpartner does not count as rape Blaming the victim woman quotaskquot for sexual advances Pressure to be macho males are taught that showing emotion is a sign of weakness depicting men as aggressive and predatory and females as passive targets Male socialization quotboys will be boysquot is normal woman are objecti ed as sexual objects in media Male misperceptions media implies sex is the focus of life men think when a woman says no she really is asking to be seduced Situational factors date in which male makes all decisions pays and generally controls the entire situation are more likely to end in aggressive sexual scenario alcoholdrugs increase risk Stalking a course of conduct directed at a speci c person that would cause a reasonable person to feel fear Repeated visual or physical proximity Nonconsensual written or verbal communication lmplied or explicit threats Stalking can occur online The most common stalking unwanted phone calls and messages spreading rumors spying on the victim and showing up at the same places as the victim without having a reason to be there A vast majority of stalkers are persons involved in relationship breakups or are other dating acquaintances fewer than 10 of stalkers are strangers to their victims Stalking is an underreported crime SelfDefense against Personal Assault and Rape A process that includes increasing your awareness developing selfprotective skills taking reasonable precautions and having the judgment necessary to respond quickly to changing situations Selfdefense tactics can lower the risk Most attacks by unknown assailants are planned in advance Sexual assaults frequently begins with casual friendly conversation Be assertive and direct to someone getting out of line and do not be afraid to cause a scene speak in a strong voice maintain eye contact stand up straight act con dent lf rape occurs Call 911 and report the attack Do not bathe shower douche clean up or touch anything the attacker may havetouched Save the clothes you were wearing Contact rape assistance hotline If a friend is raped Believe the rape victim don39t ask questions that may appear to imply that they are at fault Recognize that rape is violent act and that the victim was not looking for this to happen Encourage your friend to see a doctor immediately Encourage them to report crime Be understanding Recognize this is emotional recovery may take time to bounce back Encourage friend to seek counseling Prevention and Early Response Efforts Emergency response drills Reverse 911 system uses database and geographic technologies to notify police and community members in the event of problems other systems allow administrators to send out alerts in text voice email or instant message format Changes in Campus Environment campus lighting parking lot security emergency call boxes removal of overgrown shrubbery and steppedup security are increasingly on the radar of campus safety personnel buildings can be built with better lighting and enhanced security features cameras safe rides health promotion programs violence prevention efforts through seminars campus law enforcement has increased in both its numbers and its authority Coping in the Event of Campus Violence some may nd it dif cult to remain on campus others may have problems with concentration studying and other daily activities members of community should be allowed to mourn memorial services and acknowledgment of grief fear anger and other emotions are critical to heaHng students faculty staff should be involved in planning to prevent future problems seek out support groups therapists and trusted family members journaling or writing Preventing Violence address the issues of violence and safety at a community level inoculate children against violence in the home teaching youth principles of respect and responsibility are fundamental to health and wellbeing of future generations develop policies and laws that prevent violence and enforce them develop skills of interpersonal communication elements of healthy relationships anger management con ict resolution appropriate assertiveness stress management and other health based behaviors provide experiences that help young people to develop selfesteem and self ef cacy promote tolerance and acceptance and establish and enforce policies that forbid discrimination improve services on family planning mental health services day care and respite care and alcohol and substance abuse prevention make sure walking trails parking lots and other public areas are well lit unobstructed and patrolled regularly improve communitybased support and treatment for victims