Week 8 notes for test 4: Blood
Week 8 notes for test 4: Blood PHYS 215
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fry on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 215 at Ball State University taught by Zamlauski-Tucker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Physiology 215 Week 8 Notes 101415 Exam 4 material Blood Role of Blood 0 Maintains balance homeostasis of the body Transports material to and from cells Buffers changes in pH Carries excess heat to the body surface Plays a role in the defense system 0 Minimizes blood loss Blood components 0 Plasma 0 Red blood cells erythrocytes 0 White blood cells leukocytes o Platelets hemostasis stops bleeding OOOO Centrifuge Withdraw if bleed 7 f Eff Plasma 55 sf Whl l bleed Buffy eet leukeeytes end platelets 3 39 i I I Hemateerit quotr 1J 9 at Whale blandl Farmed V Erythlreeytes elements 425 sf whele bleele K Plasma o Carries heat Electrolytes ions Nutrients glucose amino acids lipids ampvitamins Waste products creatine bilirubin urea Dissolved gases 02 and C02 Hormones Plasma proteins Albumin transports solutes and buffers pH Globulins alpha beta gamma plays roles in transport clotting and immunity Fibrinogen precursor for brin involved in blood clotting Red blood cells RBCs o 5 billion per cubic millimeter 0 Flat disk like indented in the middle Shape provides a greater surface area for diffusion OOOOOO Thinness increases speed of diffusion o Carries 02 Hemoglobin o Globin protein and 4 peptide chains 0 Heme4 iron molecules each binding a single oxygen Binds 0 C02 transport back to the lungs o H buffer 0 CO binds tighter than oxygen ONO 0 Formation of RBCs O O O O Erythropoiesis Formed from a pluripotent stem cell that differentiates into a colony forming erythrocyte Main role is to transport 02 not use it that is why it does not have organelles or nucleus Has nucleus to begin with and form then gets rid of it when mature to carry the 02 No DNA also 0 As an RBC matures it loses its organelles including its nucleus 0 Rely on glycolysis for ATP formation P39Iurlpntem Emlimnylinnmijnug pmgurmr MamE 77mm cell 7 mindful wells will E hmcwta emmmlast ReticulumEwe Erythrocyte I O l 0 Types of Anemia reduction of the 02 carrying capacity of the blood more common in women 0 O O Nutritional anemia lack of a factor needed for erythropoiesis iron Pernicious anemia lack of intrinsic factor needed to bind vitamin 812 for absorption Aplastic anemia failure of bone marrow to produce adequate amount ofRBCs Renal anemia consequence of kidney disease decrease in erythropoietin Hemorrhagic anemia extensive blood loss o Hemolytic anemia rupture of RBCs sickle cell anemia Sickle Cell Anemia o Hereditary hemoglobin defect o Occurs mostly among Africans and individuals of African decent o Bene cial in protecting against malaria but the sickle cells cannot supply adequate oxygen to the tissues are sticky and fragile 0 May cause blood clots leading to stroke paralysis heart and kidney failure and early death Malaria Marimita in REE Hemoglobin o Carries gases in the blood 0 Contains 4 globulins and one heme group per globulin o Heme has a ferrous iron in the middle which binds 02 Blood Types 0 Inherited determined by the present of antigens Type A have A antigens Type B have B antigens Type AB have both A and B antigens Type 0 have no antigen Rh factor determines whether the blood is positive Rh factor present or negative Rh factor missing Universal donor has no antigens and this can donate to all others without fear of rejection based on type Universal acceptor can accept blood of any type since they possess both A and B type antigens Formation of White Blood Cells 0 Also form from the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into colony forming cells 0 Involved in the immune response 0 Granulocytes contain organelles Neutrophils eosinophils and basophils o Argranulocytes few or no organelles Lymphocytes and monocytes OOOOO r tangHalli quot quottiaraquot CanalIan 39I F39 HHHH and hwmoda wm dnnlrr quotF39iui39lpo39tant ninnngEFMing Propursnr 51mm will unite iQEFlee mills 2 v s A will Hillitt ini phlilil Ezra l39ll pll39lllli Emmamm felltflaiaet pmmyell wmmyelmm la pnle E u l f phlllll agophlllln Ea opmllle cm 39 groupware pyallnulegm we mum rirlphzunmauphm Hiauimpnrm cm p felu39ttlaat pmmyelluiwtwny lmwe i l 95ng quotstew m h wm minnow HHimeiigirfrlyzineytai all 39 0 l7 o Eosinophils l l t 0 Large 2 lobed nucleus connect by a thin strand N g V o Abundant granules E L o 24 of WBCS x o Involved in allergies parasitic infection collagen diseases and diseases of the spleen and CNS 0 Basoths 0 U or S shaped nucleus hidden by granules o Secretes 2 chemicals Histamine vasodilator Heparin anticoagulant 0 Less than 05 1 of WBCs o Neutrophils o 3 to 5 nuclear lobes polymorphonuclear connected by a thin strand 0 Fine granules 0 Bacterial infection Phagocytosis and digestion Chemical toxins hypochlorite and superoxide anion which forms hydrogen peroxide o 6070 of WBCs o Monocyte o Largest WBCs Large kidneyshaped nucleus Only a few ne granules Count increases during in ammation and viral infectio 39 quot Transform into macrophages phagocytes 38 of WBCs o Lymphocyte o Smallest WBCs 0 Round nucleus most of the cell i o Responds to infection and immune response OOOOO o Tcells ght infection directly 0 Bces differentiate into antibody secreting cells plasma cells Mononucleosis O n mi 0 This lymphocyte has been infected by the EpsteinBarr Virus EBV or Cytomegalovirus CMV known as mononucleosis and is referred to as a quotDowny cellquot Leukemia g 0 y 7 r o Uncontrolled proliferation of WBCs resulting in a large number of abnormal or immature cells Hemostasis o Arrest of blood 0 3 steps Vascular spasm Formation of platelet plug Blood coagulation Vascular Spasm o Sympathetically induced vasoconstriction 0 Cannot completely prevent further blood loss Formation of a Platelet Plug 0 Broken blood vessels Exposure to collagen Binding of platelets Release of ADP from pateets Binding of more pateets Release of prostacyclin and nitric oxide from adjacent endothelium Prevents pateet binding to adjacent tissue Contraction of platelet actin and myosin Release of vasoconstrictors The Clotting Cascade Fibrinagent Pmlthmmhfn urgelumen I I rugWm n Fhrlnhhmmar H l 1x Firm Elma Flhlrin Pome lIlEIntired Mail The Clotting Cascade Infrinsicratihway Eatirinlsichatlhway ct Tissuallitell Defect F III ETI39EEIJIE Th rnrnlzrrupllasti n Factor F It F Hill Erneslmlm l i i l Filzrariri frieshermit g 39 o What is a Bruise o Deoxygenated blood trapped within the tissue 0 Bruises are cleared and clots dissolved by plasmin Produced by the liver as plasminogen Activated to plasmin by factor XII and some others 0 Phagocytic white blood cells also aid in removal 0 Blood Clotting Problems 0 Thromboembolism Abnormal clotting 0 To a vessel wall thrombus 0 Free oating emboli o Hemophilia Excessive bleeding as a result of clotting factor de ciency 80 lack of factor VII 0 Vitamin K de ciency Combines with 02 releasing free energy used to activate the clotting cascade Viruses vs Bacteria Viruses can be DNA or RNA 0 Example of RNA virus Rhinovirus cold 0 Example of DNA virus Herpes Virus 0 Requires a host 0 Can use a bacteria as a host Bacteria single celled organism with DNA no central nucleus 0 Can replicate without a host 0 Can uptake DNA from other bacteria either in snips or as a plasmid circle of DNA 0 Cannot infect a virus 1imilitiaes Bacteria Endogenous pyrogen responsible for the production of fever by causing the release of prostaglandins An increase in body temperature increases 0 Phagocytosis 0 Effects enzyme activity 0 Effects lipids and proteins Salicylates aspirintype drugs 0 Decrease histamine release decrease swelling redness and pain in ammatory responses 0 lnhibit prostaglandin production Glucocorticoids antiin ammatory drugs such as cortisol o Suppress the in ammatory process 0 Destroys lymphocytes decreases antibody production 0 Decreases improper immune responses Natural killer cells NK cells lymphocyte like cells that nonspeci cally destroy cancer cells and viruses Cytotoxic T cellscan only attack on speci c types of viruses and cancer cells it has previously been exposed to Membrane Attack Complex proteins produced by the liver C1C9 which activate each other to form a pore in the membrane C5C9 of the microorganism The pore formed by C5 through C9 allows the transport of solutes and results ite lysis of h e membrane 4 e2 pores attack l 199 Wadsworth Publishing Comp nyJ ITF39 complex Complement System 0 Activated by carbohydrate chains on the surface of microorganisms and by exposure to antibodies against a speci c invader o Complement System Components Chemotaxinsattract phagocytes Opsonins bind microbes increasing phagocytosis Histamine vasodilation vascular changes Kinins reinforce in ammatory responses Antigen a large complex molecule that triggers a speci c immune response Antibody produced in the ER of plasma cells released into the blood stream known as gamma globulins or immunoglobulins each recognizes a speci c an gen Antibody Subclasses o lgM B cells surface receptor for antigen attachment and secreted in early plasma cell response 0 lgG produced when the body is reexposed to antigen 0 lgE protects against parasitic worms and mediates common allergic responses 0 lgA found in secretions tears milk digestion respiratory and genitourinary systems 0 lgD present on the surface of B cells Antibody protein structure 0 Y shaped 2 long heavy chains 2 short light chains Arm regions determine speci c antibody binding Tail region determines what the antibody will do once the antigen is bound Primary antibody responses takes several days requires exposure to antigen and production of antibodies Secondary antibody responses faster longer lasting response mediated via memory cells Activate immunity production of antibodies due to exposure to an antigen OOOO 0 Passive immunity transfer of antibodies as a mother to a fetus across the placenta or from a mother to an infant through breast milk Antigen presentation 0 Macrophage engulfs and digests the microbe o The antigen is bound to an MHC molecule 0 MHC molecule transports antigen to the cell surface 0 The macrophage secretes interleukin 1 which enhances B cell differentiation and proliferation Helper T cells 0 DO NOT SECRETE ANTIBODIES OR SIRECTLY ATTACK CELLS o Secrete interleukin 1 o Enhance the development of antigen stimulated B cells 0 Enhance cytosolic T cell activity 0 Activate macrophages and modulate the activity of other immune cells HIVAIDS Human Immunode ciency Virus Acquired Immune De ciency Syndrome o Selectively invades helper T cells and can infect macrophages as well thus decreases the immune system Cytotoxic T cells 0 Primarily target viruses 0 Recognize and bind to the target antigen with selfantigen o Kills the target by either releasing chemicals or signaling them to commit suicide 0 Perforin a chemical released by the cytotoxic T cell and by NK cells that forms channellike pores in the cell membrane 0 Cytokines any chemical that is secreted by leukocytes that is NOT an anUbody Tolerance prevention of attack on a person s own tissues 0 Clonal deletion elimination of clones that recognize ones own tissues by apoptosis cell death of immature cells 0 Clonal anergy 2 signals required for lymphocyte activation the antigen and B7 found on the surface of the antigen presenting cell exposure to a single selfantigen renders the T cell inactive 0 Receptor editing B cell is capable of changing the antigen that is recognized Thus when a B cell encounters selfantigen it often changes the antigen receptor 0 Antigen Sequestering self molecules that are never seen by the immune system not directly in contact with extracellular uid 0 Immune privilege certain tissues such as the eyes and testes possess a molecule that triggers cell death when approached by activated lymphocytes Autoimmune Disease 0 Failure of the immune system to recognize and tolerate selfantigens associated with certain tissues 0 Examples multiple sclerosis rheumatoid arthritis type 1 diabetes mellitus PANDAS pediatric autoimmune disorders associated with streptococci Neurological Autoimmune Disorders O O PANDAS Tic disorder OCD and Tourette Syndrome D817 antibody streptococci M6 antibody found in large percentage of patients with Tourette Syndrome Serum from Tourette Syndrome patients causes spontaneous verbalization of rats when injected into rat brain M6 antibody binds myosin responsible for mitral valve and heart damage associated with rheumatic fever MHC molecules major histocompatibility complex 0 O O O Escorts antigens to the cell surface for presentation Can recognize 3 to 6 antigens By itself signals the immune system to leave the cell alone With antigen signals the T cell speci c for the antigen to bind with the infected cell Class MHC molecule Benign vs Malignant O O Benign tumors are NOT cancerous They grow slowly They do NOT leave the original location Malignant Tumors Cancerous Grows at variable rates but generally faster than a benign tumor Can spread outside of its original location metastasize Immediate hypersensitivity allergic responses involving B cells 0 O 0 Examples pollen bee venom penicillin nut allergies mold dust cat saliva dog dander mites Result in the synthesis of lgE antibodies Release of antibodies by memory cells upon reeXposure leads to a more powerful response Delayed hypersensitivity take a day or so to occur involve T cells 0 Examples poison ivy poison oak poison sumac emu Collins 20m hair shaft multiple layers of dead epithelial cells efllectqr T eell willilh quot urusjhmllrecepmrsl 39 I won its membrane E Elicitation Phase u Iymplhukilmes rleleailssetl1quotfD 739 by efleettir Teelllsl n5 lkilller T eellls attracted by Sigh2393 lymphmkines release Innains f r 39 which destroy umshiml allergen and skin cells
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