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by: Cristina Laverde
Cristina Laverde
Ecology of South Florida
Pushpa Soti

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Ecology of South Florida
Pushpa Soti
Class Notes
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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Laverde on Sunday December 14, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to EVR3013 at Florida International University taught by Pushpa Soti in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 251 views. For similar materials see Ecology of South Florida in Natural Sciences at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 12/14/14
EVR3013 Cristina Laverde Why Study Ecology understand how the world works and provide evidence on the interdependence between the natural world and people aows society to predict the consequences of human activity on the environment Causes of Environmental Problems population growth unsustainabe resource use poverty not including environmental cots of economic goods and services in their market prices works trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge on how world Importance of Ecological Science role in identifying DDT phosphates acid precipitation Environment living things animals plants fungi nonliving things continents oceans clouds soil rocks our built environment buildings living centers social relationship and institutions Ecology scienti c study of the interactions between organisms and their environment two main themes where do organisms live and why how many organisms are present and why Organism gt Population gt Community gt Ecosystem gt Biosphere Atom gt Molecule gt Cell gt Organism Six Branches of Ecology global Jandscape ecosystem community deals with all interacting species within a particular area population study of a group of individuals of the same species organismal concerned about the way in which an individual interacts with the environment Ecosystem a community of interdependent organisms and the interactions with the physical environment in which they live Major Components Bioticiving plants animals microbes autotrophs heterotrophs decomposersdetritivores Abioticnon iving water air nutrients solar energy Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy conservation of matter matter input matter output 1st law of thermodynamics energy input energy output 2nd law of thermodynamics energy use results in lower quality energy and dispersed heat loss energy ow energy is lost in every conversion energy does not travel 100 from one trophic level to another usually only about 10 Trophic levels producers primary secondary tertiary consumers detritivoresinvertebratesdecomposersbacteria Geology study of the earth including surface processes which have shaped the earth39s surface study of the ocean oors and interior of the earth study of the history Time Scale of the Earth Earth is about 46 billion years old life started about 36 billion years ago human beings started existing 2 million years ago and have only witnessed 0043 of earth39s history Earth Materials and Processes sow processes formation of rocks weathering tectonism fast processes beach erosion during a storm landslides earthquakes Structure of the Earth crust continental 1050 km thick oceanic 810 km thick mantle 3488 km thick made up of rock called peridotite core 2833 km radius made up of Iron and small amount of nickel lithosphere 100 km thick surface of earth which contains the crust and upper mantle Three Plate Boundaries divergent new crust generated as plates pull apart occur at spreading ocean ridges and continental rifts ex East Paci c Ride convergent plates push together to form high mountains cascades or marinas transform tectonic plates move 110 cmyear Rocks and Minerals make up the crust igneous rock forms from magma granite lava sedimentary rock sediments of plant and animal remains and weathered rocks sandstone limestone bituminous coalmost common metamorphic rock preexisting rock transformed by heat pressure or chemicals anthracite slate marble rock cycle interaction of physical and chemical processes that change rocks from one type to another Aquifers porous limestone layer formed from 75 to 25 mya and holds mass of water upper Floridian aquifer supplies drinking water to north of Lake Okeechobee biscayne aquifer rain falling in interior land enters it directly saltwater intrusion extensive use of ground water by urban development and agriculture hawthorn Formation thick layer of aquiclude formed by ay from the Southern Appalachian mountains Soil System soils occur in a continuum across the surface of the earth except where they are separated by water air or ice Five soil forming factors parent material chemistry mineralogy grain size relieftopography ground slope elevation aspect climate temperature precipitation weathering rates greater rainfall faster erosion and leaching biota time development and destruction of soil horizons C horizonparent material gt B horizonsubsoil gt A horizontopsoil gt O horizoneaf litter Water Climate and Ecosystems Development What Causes Seasons because of the tilt of the Earth39s axis the amount of radiation received on the Northern and Southern hemisphere varies Climate physical environment which sets the background for all living things determined mostly by solar radiation earth39s rotation global patterns of air and water movement gases in the atmosphere and the earth39s surface features weather vs climate weather is local highly variable region to region and can be wetdry coldwarm mildsevere while climate affects all livings things and changes very slowly is long term Factors That In uence Climate the sun warms atmosphere evaporatesrecycles water generates wind supports plant growth the atmosphere earth39s temperature would be much colder without it the oceans store and transport heat and moisture Why are there rain forests in the tropics and deserts at 30 NS answer heat and moisture are distributed over the earth39s surface by vertical currents which form six convection cells the uneven distribution of heat and moisture lead to forests grasslands and deserts Ocean Currents and Climate ocean currents are driven by the risefall of tides driven by gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon on earth39s oceans wind and thermohaline circulation Global Ocean Currents affect regional climates altered by earth39s rotation and continents to distribute heat nutrients and oxygen two type of ocean currents surface currents which make up 10 of all the water in the ocean and are the upper 400 meters of the ocean and deep water currents which make up 90 of the ocean ocean currents move 40 of excess heat from equator to poles and the other 60 is carried by atmosphere through storms Biomes large terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate soil plants and animals when environment changes organisms either adapt migrate or become extinct Rain Shadow Effect movement of moist ocean air across a mountain 1 prevailing winds pick up moisture from the ocean 2 windward side of a mountain range air rises cools and releases moisture 3 leeward side of the mountain range air descends warms and releases little moisture Classi cation of Climate in Florida tropical savanna location just north of the tropic of cancer average temperature every month is greater than 64 degrees wet and dry seasons warm ocean on 3 sides tropical vegetation found from Miami to Naples Water Climate and Ecosystems Development lnsolation total amount of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area during a given time Terrestrial Biomes of the world Tundra covers 20 of Earth39s surface average temperate is 5d Celsius 610 inches of precipitation each year treeless water held ad ice most of the year plant growth is may august soils rich in organic matter is known as peat only top soil defrosts below that ground remains frozen low species diversity Boreal forest great r forest of Canada and northern Eurasia seasonal expansion of vegetation polar air in winter continental air in summer most trees look like Christmas trees not oak trees Temperate forest divided into evergreen and deciduous moist cool climate with hot summers cool winters rain is plentiful old growth forest includes oak beech and maple trees Prairies and grasslands similar to temperate but dryer precipitation ranges from a low of 40 mm to a high of 80 cm numerous herbivores develop evolutionary factors like panting large ears and sweating two types of grasslands temperate North America aka prairie and tropical Africa aka savanna Chaparral Desert rainshadow area where descending air is dry and warm animals develop evolutionary factors camels nasal structure needles develop microclimate Tropical forest constant temperature much rain wet and dry seasons which determine the area39s ecology long dry season vs short dry season huge diversity 5070 of all organisms inhibit here most productive biome Tropical mountains Ecological Succession de ned natural gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area primary creating life where no previous life existed ex new lava or rock from a volcano that makes a new island secondary process of re stabilization that follows a disturbance in an area where life has formed an ecosystem seeds in the soil begin to grow after a forest re Summary pioneer species colonize changes in environment new species of plants new species climax community disturbances begin process of succession again Complex Community de ned mature stable community that is the nal stage of ecological succession threats forest res building of cities and roads ooding volcanic eruptions agricultural clearing Climax Community de ned stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process Population Interactions 0 symbols refer to the effect of one species on another when both are living together Commensalism 0 one population is bene ted but the other is not signi cantly affected catte egret and cattle ecoli living in the guts of humans humans are not harmed by its presence and no bene t has been discovered Mutualism population interact to bene t both pollination of owering plants by an insect of humming bird bird and alligator bird gets food alligator gets teeth cleaned Competition mutual use of a limited resource whether intraspeci c same species or interspeci c different species interference competition individual s interact directly to limit one another s access to resource resource competition individuals interact with resource in effort to obtain more Parasitism Predation Population Ecology de ned study of populations in relation to their environment and its in uences such as density and distribution age structure population size density number of individuals per unit area dispersion pattern of spacing among individuals within geographic boundanes 0 clumped dispersion mechanism against predation strategy to corner prey sh uniform dispersion evenly distributed ability to survive anywhere in their habitat penguins random dispersion found randomly ability to travel around habitat trees Demographics de ned study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time Survivorship Curves de ned graphic way of representing the data in a life table type 1 low death rates during early and middle life and increase in death rates among older age groups type 2 constant death rate over organism39s life span type 3 high death rates for the young and lower death rate for survivors Population Growth Zero population growth rate birth rate death rate r0 Exponential population growth population increase under idealized conditions Carrying capacity max population size the environment can support Logistic growth rate rate of population slows as the population size approaches carrying capacity S shaped curve Evolution and Life History Diversity Big bang reproductionsemeparity reproduce once and die Repeated reproductioniteroparity produce offspring repeatedly K selection selects for life history traits that are sensitive to population density density dependent slow maturity long lived care for the young competitors elephant R seection selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction density independent reach maturity rapidly short lived low investment in care for the young high rate of population increase opportunists cockroach dandelion Density Dependent Factors de ned br fall and dr rise with changes in density Limiting resources Production of toxic wastes Diseases Predation Emigration Density Independent Factors de ned br and dr don39t change with population density Severe storms and ooding Earthquakes and volcanoes Meteorite impacts Demographic Transition Age structure relative of individuals of each age Evolution Biodiversity amp Habitats Population Dynamics Density of individuals per unit area Dispersion pattern of spacing among individuals Population size changes according to births immigration deaths emigration Age structure portion of populations individuals at various ages Limits to Population Growth Biotic potential capacity for growth Intrinsic rate of increaseR growth rate on unltd resources Environmental resistance all factors that limit the growth of a population Carrying capacity K biotic potential and environmental resistance can be inde nitely sustained Exponential growth unbounded growth w unltd resources J shaped growth curve Logistic growth resource limited growth that reaches an equilibrium S shaped growth curve Survivorship Curves Type I late loss large mammals humans few offspring invested in each Type II constant loss birds some mammals equal probabilities at each life stage Type III early loss reptiles amphibians insects sh many offspring little parental cre Semelparous Reproduction Often an adaptation to erratic climatic conditions 0 Suitable breeding conditions occur rarely Iteroparous Reproduction Occurs when organisms have good prospects of reproducing in the future ong lived Human Population Age Structure 0 Expanding rapidly Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia 0 Expanding slowly US Australia China 0 Stable Japan Italy Greece 0 Declining Germany Bulgaria Russia Biological Evolution de ned population evolve when genes mutate and give some individuals genetic traits that enhance their abilities to survive and to produce offspring with these traits natural selection Theory of Evolution All species descended from ancestral species supported by fossils 46 billion years geologic 37 biologic Origins of Life 1 Formation of crust and atmosphere 2 organic molecules in the sea first small then large biopolymers 3 rst protocells form in the seas single celled prokaryotes and then eukaryotes 4 variety of multicellular organisms forms rst in the seas and then onland Population Changes Over Time 1 population evolve by becoming genetically different mutations 2 natural selection Island Biogeography The degree of isolation is a factor in determining the biota it will support Organisms have adaptations that allow them to reach the island not allowing them to live there once they reach it restricts diversity of life Long distance dispersal is more common in plants than in animals single spore or dispersion of a seed vs a pregnant female Populations are smaller less genetic diversity not originally adapted to island habitat Equilibrium theory species repeatedly arrive on an island and either thrive or become extinct extinction rate increases with increasing diversity re ects balance bw rate of immigration and rate of extinction Colonization rates are higher on an island closer to a mainland higher equilibrium number of species on a large island Habitat Fragmentation de ned large expanse of habitat is transformed into a number of smaller patches of smaller total area isolated from each other by a matrix of habitats unlike the original Area sensitive species require minimum patch size for daily life requirement Edge affects in uence of factors from outside of a patch jBiodiversity Invasive Species Can be plants animals and other organisms such as microbes Rapid growth and short life cycle Able to grow in a wide range of habitats Long seed dormancy Reproduce sexually or asexually High reproductive potential rstrategy Types of Invasive Species ntroduced species introduced deliberately or accidentally from somewhere else non native exotic Domesticferal released pets livestock or game animals that can spread disease and compete with native species Human commensalsubsidized native species that bene t from our land use out of control natives Invasive species species that spread to subsequent establishment usually at some cost Example of Invasive Species Lion sh native to indo paci c region but now a serious threat to the Caribbean pez leon Pythons native to Southeast Asia but now invade the Everglades Brown Tree Snake native to New Guinea and Australia after WWII some hid in military equipment and invaded Guam Cane toad native to central and south America introduced world wide to control insects but its milky secretions are highly toxic and kil dogs and cats Kudzu introduced into the US at an exposition to promote a forage rop and ornamental and now kills other plants by smothering them under a blanket of leaves How do they get here Accidentally by ships raw timber contaminants in seedsgrain packing materials Purposefully for horticultural use soil erosion control or for commerce Naturally by wind Three components of biodiversity Diversity of species group of living organisms that can interbreed bats birds and snails diversity of genes variation in genes that exist within a species diff dog breeds variety of ecosystems variety of ways that species interact w each other and their environment desert tropical rain forest taiga Decline of Biodiversity Habitat loss Invasive species Pollution Population Over harvesting overuse Why We Need Biodiversity Human heath plant species are used in medicine Indirect use value services provided by biodiversity that are regarded as free Food and energy security Reduce vulnerability to natural hazards mangrove forests reduce impact of hurricanes in FL Intro to Everglades Terminologies System group of interacting natural bodies that together perform one or more vital functions Ecosystem community of organisms and its chemical and physical environment Estuaries freshwater mixes with sea water producing brackish water Habitat placeenvironment where plantanimal lives and grows Ridges amp slough higher sawgrass ridges separated by deeper water lily sloughs Wetlands areas covered with water during part of the year Ground water water trapped underground in area of porous material Watershed area of land that catches rain and drains or seeps into a marsh river lake or groundwater Kissimmee Okeechobee Everglades watershed which is an area of about 9000 mi2 Terrestrial Ecosystem Home of more than 350 species of birds wetland plants trees marsh vegetation invertebrates amphibians reptiles and mammals 67 threatenedendangered species Native American Habitation in Florida Paleo Indians o 130009000 BP o nomads and hunter gatherers o climate was cooler and drier Archaic period o 90003500 BP more extensive tool use widespread human presence rainfall increased sea level rose birth of everglades OOOO Formative period o 3500 BP 1763 AD o red clay pottery o social organization large permanent establishments o local corn agriculture Seminole and Miccosukee Tribes o 1825 o no native American presence for about 60 years o Seminoles arrive in 1825 from SE US The Calusa o SW FL 12001566 AD o Settlements in Charlotte Harbor Marco Island o Used canoes to travel to Cuba The Tequesta o SE FL 12001566 AD o Used interior everglades o Main settlement at mouth of Miami River Human Contact with Europeans Initial contact for N America in St Augustine 1500 AD First contact with S FL natives 1566 led by Pedro Menendez and Calusa in Charlotte Harbor 0 Post European contact led to disease and salve raids Building on the Former Everglades Provide for navigation Reduce water levels for agriculture in marsh and swamplands Directed freshwater from interior areas to ocean Lack of understanding of hydrology of everglades ecosystem Three stages of drainage in the Everglades Lake Okeechobee Phase o Swamplands act in 1850 congress transferred 20 million acres of SoFlo for drainage and reclamation o 1881 Hamilton Disston drained 50000 acres o lowered lake levels 0 Muck Canal drainage phase o 1905 into 193039s o west palm beach canal N and S new river canals Hillsboro canal Miami canal o dredged peat soils and piled on banks 0 Tamiami trail o 19161928 o eastwest transportation Today 0 1000 miles of canals o 720 miles of levees controlled by 16 pump stations 0 200 gatesother water control structures 0 12 of Everglades lost to agribusiness and urban devt 0 100 mile long Kissimmee River converted to 50 mile long canal ow to Everglades reduced by 70 littoral marsh in Lake Okeechobee suffers from high water being backed to meet the high demand 0 1 million acres posted with health advisory due to contamination 0 FL bay suffers from lack of freshwater causing hypersaline conditions 0 Water management is major threat to everglades ecosystem Environments of the Everglades Region 0 Fire ecology o All ecosystems change over time o Fire is neither innately good nor bad just an agent of change o Human perception of whether its good or bad depends on resource objectives 0 Fire regime components o Type o Season Area burnedextent Intensity Severity Frequency o Synergy Indirect effects on animals o Food sources and nutritional quality increase o Habitat is modi ed o Microclimate is modi ed How re helps o Frequent regular res are necessary to preserve appropriate scrub height and structure o Without re at short intervals scrub habitat becomes too tall and dense which results in increased nest predation and lower reproduction rates Wetlands lands that are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where water table is at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water 0 3 components o vegetation hydrophytes o soil saturated or hydric saturated soil that favors wetland plants and excludes upland plants o hydrology water 0 Types o marshes freshwater wetlands that have mostly non wooden plants such as herbaceous plants and woody plants ex everglades o 0000 Freshwater Marshes Classi cation of Freshwater Biomes by Productivity 0 Oligotrophic deep nutrient poor water very clear 0 Eutrophic shallower nutrient rich murky with phytoplankton Mesotrophic in between the above two Fires 0 Caused by lightning Two re seasons are may august caused by lightning and November may when man caused res occur Fire management 0 Fire is necessary to maintain the everglades biological diversity so res are let burn as long as it doesn39t pose threat to surrounding residence Marsh vs Swamp Marsh shallow slow moving water dominated by grasses Swamp shallow slow moving water dominated with hardwood trees Sawgrass Marsh 0 Usually ooded with water for most of the year 0 Hydroperiod determines the growth of sawgrass periphyton base ll 39 397 1 I J Plmm lE39u39i Firm H Eiiin aIef39I i39lh l i P p 3 Secondary Consumer Wet Prairies Areas of marsh dominated by emergent plants other than sawgrass such as grasses and low growing plants 0 Greater diversity of species than other types of marshes due to the close proximity to other types of habitats and low vegetation dens y Two types of soil in the marsh 0 Peat occurs in marshes with longer hydroperiod o Occurs in areas where the bedrock is deeo o Everglades peat and muck entirely the remains of sawgrass o Loxahatchee peat occurs in deepr marsh area 0 Marl occurs in marshes with shorter hydroperiod o Rock containing clay and calcium carbonate o Product of periphyton Marl Prairie 0 Sparsely vegetated 20 40 cover 0 Seasonally inundated 24 months to a shallow depth about 8 inches 0 Shortest hydroperiods of the everglades 0 High species diversity 100 different species Periphyton Base of food web 0 Photosynthetic bacteria and algae 0 Shallow clean water 0 Low phosphorous concentration 0 Supports snails crustaceans insects herbivorous sh Slough 0 Low ying area of land that channels water through the everglades Relatively deep and remain ooded year round Shark river slough and taylor slough 0 Occur over peat soil Alligator Holes 0 Open holes found in marshes 0 Form by burning an area rich in peat soil or by alligator activity 0 Filled with water even in the dry season and become refugees to a variety of wildlife Tree Island 0 Any area where clumps of trees occur in areas of smaller stature vegetation Three kinds o Bayheads most common type forested wetlands that include a variety of dominant tree species such as evergreens and shrub species o Willow head mark a location that has been completely destroyed by re o Cypress heads most ood tolerant grow in areas covered by water include bald cypress and pond cypress associated with cypress knees cypress dome cypress strands and epiphytes Tropical Hardwood Hammock Dense strand of broad leafed trees that grow on a natural rise of only a few inches in elevation Rarely ood 0 Correspond to ares where average January temperature is greater than 54 degrees F 0 Develop where ground is harder and higher 0 Dens canopy and open interior 0 Decaying leaves and branches create peat 0 Cannot tolerate re Pine Flatwoods Fire dependent 0 Open overstory of pines extensive shrub layer variable and sparse herbaceouslayer Pine Rocklands Found in SoFLo Cuba and Bahamas 0 Single dominant canopy species 0 Wide diversity of herbaceous species 0 Fire maintained species 0 Seriously endangered in SoFlo Big Cypress I Wet Prairie I 5aWgfaSS I IE11 Sh I Wet Prairie I Slough I Alligator I Tree I I marl I Sparse Dense I peat I I Hole I Island I I I I I I Limestone Marsih peat Tree islancl peat FIGURE 31 An idealized greatly compressed cross section of typical Everglades plant communities Drawing by Wes Jurgi1s Nith permission The Big Cypress Swamp 0 Swamp dominant vegetation of wetland 0 Nearly at topography but higher elevation 3 Types of soils 0 sands north and west 0 marls freshwater marshes 0 peat depressions ooded most of the time Relationship of Topography and Water Level 0 pinepalmetto forest shallow water or dry in wet season 0 wet prairie deeper water than pinepalmetto forest 0 cypress dome depressions in bedrock lled with sediment hardwood hammock dry ground in both wet and dry season Role of Fire 0 Sawgrass low intensity re in shallow water protects roots 0 Pine forest low intensity re before seed generation followed by no re season 35 years seedings become re resistant Dry prairie frequent high intensity res kills trees preserves open grassland 0 Cypress tolerant of re low intensity re in shallow water reduces competition from hardwood trees Habitat Types in Big Cypress Higher plant species than in the Everglades due to location and topography Highest ground Hammocks High ground pine atwoods Middle ground sandy soil mixed pine and sawgrass Middle and low ground cypress forests and mixed swamp forests Strands linear corridors of swamp forests where bedrock lies close to the surface Cypress Tree 13 of big cypress is covered by this tree loses leaves in the water quotknees protrude above soil to provide oxygenation to roots pond cypress found in stil water swamps and grow only to about 10 ft tall quotdwarf cypress bald cypress widespread grows best in riparian swamps along rivers Cypress Forests Bald cypress peat soil open leaves Pond cypress marl soil appressed leaves Cypress dome peat formation longer hydroperiod Dwarf shorter hydroperiod marl soils Strand linear communities that lack broadleaved trees and shrubs Mangrove Swamps coastal ecosystems Florida Bay Mangroves Woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea o Replace tidal salt marshes Develop best in shallow tidal waters and coastal areas with low wave energy No understory Low plant species diversity Cover 14 of the worlds tropical coastline and 23 of all mangrove forests in FL Factors affecting Distribution Temperature frost limits expansion into temperate zone Moisture and freshwater in ow for nutrient intake Currents for seed dispersal Hurricanes are a major force shaping mangrove areas deu tow ind waves and storm surge Consequences of life along shores Greater root mass relative to rest of plant and non mangrove species Lower growth rates salt and air stress Other mangrove adaptations Vivipary is common offspring grow while still attached to parent plant and allow seedlings to develop salinity tolerance Tidal dispersion of propagules oat horizontally initially and disperse with currents Mangrove Habitat Types Shore inland o Tide dominated coastal front habitats frequent sedimentation o Riverline found in river deltas constant in ux of freshwater great changes in salinity levels o Basin mangroves behind coastal mangroves little change in tides no wave action higher salinity than others 3 species in SoFlo red mangrove red underneath think bark large prop roots do not require salt water more cold tolerant high mortality because they don39t resprout from branchestrunks after breakage black mangrove o black bark lots of pneumatophores o salt enters through roots and excreted through tiny glands in leaves o can tolerate very high salinity white mangrove o can grow anywhere but best in higher elevations o leaves are elliptical O O O O o buttonwood tree is related Why are mangroves important Serve as important buffer between sea and land o Lessen impact of intense storms o Reduce erosion and increase sedimentatiojn o Flood control o Coastal pioneer species Filter and cleanse nutrients from water Support coastal shery and forest extraction Nursery role o Contributes to the production of recruits and refuges from predation Threats to mangroves worldwide Deforestation Overexploitation of sheries Conversion of coastal habitats into shrimp farms Why do mangrove habitats smell bad Hydrogen sul de colorless very poisonous ammable gas with a foul odor of expired eggs and results from the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen such as swamps and sewers Florida bay Shallow inner shelf lagoon Freshwater from the everglades mixes with the salty waters from the Gulf of Mexico 1000 sq miles of interconnected basins grassy mud banks and mangrove islands origins of marl sediments are not uniformly spread Florida39s Coral Reefs and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary What are corals animals unlike rocks corals are alive unlike plants corals do not make their own food live in symbiotic relationships need warm clean and clear water of normal salinity among most productive ecosystems biodiversity hotspots more than 500 million people in the world depend on coral reefs for food Florida coral reef Shallow extends along the eastern coast of FL from St Lucie inlet to the FL keys Threats to coral reefs From nature O 0000 Strong waves Water temperature changes Changes in saltiness of water Predators such as snails Overgrowth of algae From humans 0 000000 0 Sediments block light from zooxanthellae Chemicals poison corals or allow too much algae to grow Power plants lter water and kill sh and plankton Releasing hot water kills organisms Pollution Coast restoration deforestation causes erosion which clouds the water Agricultural runoff high nutrient load from sewage can cause harmful algal blooms and promote coral disease Destructive shing Coral bleaching and Disease Loss of zooxanthellae results in the death of coral 1998 El Nino warmed the water and killed coral rising sea levels reduces light Marine powerful storms stir up sediments pollution toxins diseases sahara dust pollutants from degradation Fl keys National Marine Sanctuary One of the marine protected areas Protects 2900 sq nautical miles of water surrounding the FL keys Invertebrates Fishes Amphibians and Reptiles Invertebrates Do not have a backbone and include all animals except shes amphibians reptiles birds and mammals Found in every area of the wetlands Base of the swamps food chain invertebrates Have planktonic larval forms dispersed by ocean currents Caribbean spiny lobster lives on coral reefs and mangrove swamps Blue crab temperate species dependent on estuaries Freshwater invertebrates Everglades doesn39t have a great diversity due to limited habitats and stressful conditions Worms leeches mites spiders crustaceans Florida appesnai found in wetlands rivers lakes o Can extract oxygen from gills or lung o Water depth no more than 20 inches o Important species in the everglades due to its predation by alligators and numerous birds Seminole and mesa rams horns o Much smaller than applesnail common throughout everglades o Can survive dry conditions Cray sh o Five species in the everglades o Prey for 40 species of invertebrates Riverine grass shrimp and sideswimmer amphipod o Keystone species importance in food web o Cannot survive dry down o Found in slough Aquatic insects Most live in water as larvae adults live in air Important in foodweb o Dragon ies Terrestrial invertebrates Butter ies o Zebra long wing butter y Schaus swallowtail o Depends on rare hammock tree 0 Native bee pollinators Florida tree snail o On tropical hammock trees 0 Importance of invertebrates 0 Lower position on the food web 0 Great importance in the diets of many everglades predators o What is a sh Aquatic chordate whose limbs are in the forms of ns and uses gills for respiration Freshwater shes Essential to everglades food web it functions because of annual sh biomass production 0 Three types of Freshwater Fish 0 Primary live only in freshwater o Bluegill sun sh o Largemouth bass found only in FL peninsula o Bow n o Chubsucker o Dollar sun sh 0 Secondary some tolerance for salty water o Can swim through salty areas to colonize new habitats o Seminole killi sh o ag sh Peripheral live some part of life in salt water o Live most or part of lives in salty water o Sail n molly o Florida gar o American eel o Silversides Importance of Freshwater Fishes Integrated into food web o Herbivores golden shiner killi shers ag sh o nvertivores bluegills redear sun sh mosquito sh o Piscivores warmouth largemouth bass adult FL gar Mairine and Estuarine Fishes Vast numbers greater than any other vertebrate group Geographic setting blending of temperate and tropical species Diverse marine habitats o Deep ocean waters coral reefs continental shelf estuaries and mangrove swamps Ecology support of sh eating birds Amphibians 0 Biological dispersal similar to freshwater sh Cannot tolerate salt water and dry conditions 0 Eggs laid in freshwater and larval stages only live in freshwater o Two toes amphiuma 0 Greater siren 0 Squirrel tree frog 0 Pig frog edible Reptiles More than 50 species in everglades national park 0 Can tolerate salt water and dry conditions 0 Hard shelled egg 0 Limited ability to cross geographic barriers 0 Florida redbelly turtle 0 Box turtle Snakes FL is home to 46 species 6 of which are venomous Eastern diamond backed rattlesnake Cottonmouth Copperhead Timber rattlesnake Pygmy rattlesnake OOOOO o Coral snakes o Invasive reptile species 0 Green iguana 0 Nile monitor lizard Alligators and crocodiles 0 3 stages of drainage in the Everglades Lake Okeechobee Phase 18501900 0 Muck Canal drainage phase 1905 1930 s 0 The Central amp Southern Florida for Flood Control 1950 s 1973 Todays Everglades result of CampSF 4 components o perimeter levee 100 miles long cutoff eastern 16 of Everglades from interior o Designated creation of WCA water conservation and managed as impoundments o Designated creation of EAA net loss of 27 of historic Everglades o Enlargement of canal system into a network control of water from Kissimmee R southward resulting in 1000 miles of canals and 150 water control structures and 16 major pump stations 0 197039s Realization o Everglades system was deteriorating 0 Lack of suf cient water for Everglades National Park o Declining wading bird populations o Declining health of estuaries and Fl Bay due to changes in salinity o Exotic plant infestations o Nutrient related changes in Lake Okee and water conservation areas 0 Efforts to restore the Everglades o Modi ed water deliveries to rehydrate the NE corner of ENP acquired under 1989 Everglades Expansion Act AAA authorized improvements in water deliveries into the park and took steps to restore natural hydrologic conditions less costly alternative build 1 mile long bridge 2 miles west of Krome Ave o Everglades Forever Act 1994 settled lawsuit regarding water quality standards Best Management Practices BMP reduced phosphorus levels to 50 ppb reduced by 51 o CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan quotrestudy Get water right in terms of quantity quality timing distribution owvelocity Projected cost greater than 8 billion and 50 years to implement Everglades Restoration 0 To capture and store freshwater currently discharged to the ocean and use it during the dry season to replicate natural ow Remove 240 miles of leveescanals and restore sheet ow Reservoirs to store water by pumping water to underground aquifers 0 Cleaning of wastewater with ltration wetlands 0 Operational modi cations 0 Goals of CERP Enhance ecological values through improving the total spatial extend of natural areas 0 Improving habitat and functional quality 0 Improving native plant and animal species abundance and diversity 0 Enhance economical values and social well being through increasing availability of fresh water 0 Reducing ood damage 0 Providing recreational and navigation opportunities 0 Protecting cultural and archaeological resources and values 0 Guiding Principles of CERP 0 Ensure the right quantity quality timing distribution owvelocity of water for ecosystem ood protection and water for human activities 0 Incorporate water quality criteria under the Clean Water Act the original CampSF didn39t incorporate water quality criteria only protection from saltwater intrusion Base plan on best available science 0 Incorporate adaptive management so that projects are evaluated and plan adjusted to meet new conditions recover 0 CERP in 2000 Implemented through a 5050 federalstate partnership 0 Capture fresh water that now ows unused to the ocean and the guld and redirect it to areas that need it most 0 Majority of the water will be devoted to environmental restoration 0 Remaining water will bene t cities and farmers by enhancing water supplies for SoFlo Restoring Natural Flow 0 Somewhat unknown since we still need to provide water for agriculture and residents 0 Improving water quality 0 Everglades forever act ensures 320 million will go from the sugar industry to restoration of lands by 2014 0 Water ow to the Everglades will be increased by 28 through re routing of rivers and release of stored water 0 40000 acres of EAA lands will be converted into an arti cial ltering marsh to help cleanse the water before it leaves the are 0 Best Management Program BPP requires the EAA to achieve a 25 reduction in total phosphorus discharge to the everglades 0 Storm water treatment 0 Restoration Program in the FL Bay 0 Nearly 6 million supported over 70 research projects designed to assist restoration efforts 0 Restoration in the East Everglades Everglades Protection and Expansion Act added 107600 acres of critical habitat in Shark Slough to Everglades national park 0 Directed the ACE to modify water management structures for sheet ow of water Urban ecology and Land Use How is the world39s population distributed 0 Human population is concentrated in cities 0 Urbanization concentration of the population in cities accompanied by transformation of land use and society o City urban area consisting of residential industrial and business areas and generally has a core area which is the center of social political and economic life o Rural area most residents depend on the harvest of natural resources including agriculture 0 Half of the world lives in urban areas almost 80 of Americans live in cities 0 Advantages of urbanization Economic development 0 lnnova on 0 Education and jobs 0 Technological advances Recycling more economically feasible 0 Longer life spans Major trends in Urban Growth 0 Proportion of urban global population growing 0 Number and sizes of urban areas mushrooming Rapid increase in urban populations in developing countries 0 Urban growth slower in developed nations 0 Poverty increasing 0 Urban areas continue to grow natural increase and immigration 0 Urbanization in the US 0 Today about 34 of the US population lives in cities 0 18002007 increased population 0 migration patterns 0 better working and housing conditions compared to the past 0 problems in urban areas Urbansuburban Sprawl sprawl the spread of low density urban or suburban development outward most urban dwellers live in the suburbs moving to suburbs since 195039s 0 50 of the US population is suburban 0 Causes of Sprawl Human population growth 0 Per capita land consumption each person takes up more land o Between 1950 and 1990 US population increased 80 but land area grew 305 due to Prosperity Automobiles and cheap gasoline Ample and affordable land Telecommunications have moved businesses from cities Most people like space and privacy People assume that growth is good Poor urban planning 0 Sprawl Waste resources o Oil consumption o Sunlight cars photochemical smog Makes us unhealthy o Promotes physical inactivity Municipal solid waste on average US produces 45 lbs per personday a lot of this waste is not hazardous and could be recycled a small portion is hazardous toxic causes health threat contaminates environment Burying Solid Waste Most goes to land ll where waste is compacted and covered In the developing world open dumps are the primary disposal method where garbage is piled but exposed Human impact Everglades plumbing Drainage 50 of wetland already lost mpoundment 1500 miles of canals and levees 200 water control structures that control water movement Cities transitioning towards sustainability Sustainability the capacity to endure Living sustainably includes an effort to be aware of our interdependence with the social economical and ecological systems of which we are part Manage human population growth to be able to accommodate human population without depleting the natural capital available locally or throughout the world Reduce poverty Curb unsustainable forms of resource use that depletes earth39s natural capital Create a better world for ourselves and future generations 0 Build social capital 0 New urbanism seeks to design neighborhoods on a walkable scale with homes businesses schools and other amenities all close together for convenience Smart growth guide rate placement and style of development to better serve the environment economy and community Urban growth boundaries 0 UGB s 0 Have been adopted in many communities across the US 0 They help maintain farms and natural areas and appear to reduce infrastructure costs as compared to sprawl RecycHng Lowers our demand for raw materials 0 Recycling aluminum uses 5 energy of raw production 0 We cut down 2 million trees daily to produce paper products 0 Composting is most common large scale recycling 0 Reusing is most ef cient than recycling 0 Movie Notes 0 Massive restoration plan 0 40 years 0 cost more than 10 billion fails survival of SoFlo hangs in the balance water39s journey 2005 hurricane season Wilma most damage from hurricanes catastrophic failure of dikes and water control structures so o has vulnerability to major ood events remote control dams and pumps designed to hold the water back late 1920s storms caused massive ooding 1928 category 5 hurricanes living on shore of lake Okeechobee dike was breached and ripped apart water hit with the force of a tsunami Herbert hoover later built 40 foot dike runs 80 miles Everglades Born after the last ice age Late 1800s rst prob in the everglades o Hamilton wanted ro reroute the lake Okeechobee e and w of the ocean to stop ow of water in so o removing water provided acres of fertile land now considered an environmental mistake Restoration Moving water to s using natural biological processes Algae blooms don39t let sunlight reach the bottom of the lake Closed loop system takes water and separates the sludge with phosphorus from the useable water Major challenge minimize storm water impact Goal undo unintended damage by canals Biomechanical observation Relies on cleaning phosphorus restoring sheath ow massive water systems for farming and urbanization threshold on phosphorus levels Tree islands Spot for biodiversity Role of the tree islands War against invasive plants and animals Difference bw environment and ecosystem Env total of our surroundings physical living and nonliving things o Living things o Non living things Ecosystem interaction bw those things o Biotic and abiotic factors what are the biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem Biotic 2 Autotrophs produce nutrients needed question is in reverse 2 Heterotrophs consume other organisms 2 Decomposersdetritivores recycle nutrients back to producers by decomposing the wastes and remains of organisms bacteria fungi U PRODUCERS AND AUTOTROPHS ARE THE SAME THING 2 Role of producers consumers decomposers bear eats berriesprimary bear eats shsecondary Abiotic 392 Water air nutrients solar energy 0 Ecosystem service bene t you get from natural resources o What bene ts wetlands soil forests and mangroves provide to us Second law of thermodynamics and relation to food webs Energy degrades as it is transferred rest of it is lost 0 What happens to energy in an ecosystem o Food chain o Food web o Trophic levels 0 Usable energy by trophic level 0 What happens to the amount of energy available as you move to higher levels on a food pyramid 0 Identify 5 trophic levels 0 Limestone formation Chart 0 Con ning layer is made up of ne plastic materials broken down fragments ex clay 0 North and central drink water from aquifer 0 So o drinks from Biscayne aquifer Three factors that in uence climate The sun The atmosphere The oceans Difference between weather and climate Weather what you experience in your daily life Climate average over the years Environmental effect of global warming Economic ecological activity happens mostly around the coast so we are highly impacted Droughts oods problem in everglades restoration Saltwater intrusion by sea level rising would put Biscayne aquifer at risk and increase diseases a lot of mosquitoes carry disease Increase of invasive species Greenhouse gases Absorb the emanating radiation Warms earth39s atmosphere and surface Global warming potential the relative ability of one molecule of a given greenhouse gas to contribute to global warming Earth does not get heated by incoming solar radiation but by the re ection of it Carbon dioxide primary greenhouse gas why is it the major one Population Patterns of dispersiondistribution depend on the habitat food availability for animals and where the seed was dropped for plants o Uniform happens when food is equally distributed penguins o Clumped tree islands because food is in one place sh o Random animals stay whenever they nd food Factors that cause distribution patterns o Number of prey o Availability of food o Habitat conditions Theory of ecology in real life Type I type II type III survivorship curves o Type I low DR highest DR at old age humans o Type II constant mortality mortality independent of age squirrels o Type III high DR early in life highest DR at young age oysters Difference Examples of each Factors that affect each curve diseases predators Density dependent density independent o Density independent natural disasters has similar impact whether population is high or low o Density dependent Difference between r and k selected organisms o K selected poor colonizers slow maturity long lived panda o R selected short lived reach sexual maturity rapidly cockroach Island biogeography Island closest to mainland has largest population More diversity if the island is large more food different habitats within the island Equilibrium theory Extinction rates Habitats How is sawgrass marsh different from wet prairie o Marsh has only sawgrass is low in nutrients o Wet prairies more peat more nutrients more biodiversity Which area is the wettest What kind of plants are found in each Water depth A lot of peat deeper waters Sawgrass low nutrients Types of soil Peat forms in deeper waters where organisms cannot break down the material and there is less oxygen Marl shallow water because you need the periphytons o Marl in FL bay formation biological comes from seagrasses o Marl in prairies formation on top of the limestone geological biological majority of it is limestone Succession Regulates habitats shifting from one type to another type Factors that limit succession o Fire Three types of islands Type of trees and origin Batterypop up waters are deeper in the slough easily decomposable plants Fixed Strand Once you see disturbance willowhead Mangroves found in tropics and subtropics warm and shallow waters Know three types How do they adapt and how have they evolved Vivipary seeds grow when still attached to parent Able to tolerate the salty water Which ones are excludors excretors Difference betweeen pine rocklands and pine atwoods Distribution in the Everglades Everglades restoration plan CERP


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