History 102 Week 5 Notes
History 102 Week 5 Notes HIST 102 011
Popular in Western Civ: 1648 - Present
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Blaine on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of Delaware taught by David Shearer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Western Civ: 1648 - Present in History at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 10/14/15
Ordinary people life was a struggle for survival 0 00000 O Struggle to make the last yield Nature Kings power taxes Poverty Never heard of the enlightenment Couldn t read Highly religious and superstitious 1600 most people lived lives little better than life in the middle ages 0 0 life expectancy 25 infant mortality struggle for food clothing Why did nothing get better 0 O Famine literally nothing to eat Sleep a lot because people didn t have the strength to work Living off the land rural areas Primarily agrarian Even with population increases farming method stays the same Bad harvest years cyclical and frequent Famine 2 times every 89 years a Disease is rampant smallpox in uenza plague O Armies moving disease factories Killing each other Stealing and burning crops Consequences of war loss of land population foods Famine disease war 3 scourges of war Peasants survive on bread Literally just bread That s it 2bs a day 0 O O O 0 Rye wheat beer anything with grain in it High carbohydrate diet Most vitamins from whole grains Supplemented with oatmeal peas beans Not a lot of potatoes or other crops Some root crops carrots etc Big problem seasonal crops Little meat available little milk Cheeses and butter was available and only kept if afforded Few fruits except in south Richer people ate more meat Dutch people probably at the best 0 0 Most diversity in their foods Little land how to make land productive 0 Method of land management 0 0 Open eld system Land held in common Peasant villages would pay landowner for use of theland Individual families would farm bits of the land that the village holds Communal system Crop rotation systems a Better for the land a Nutrient system Lots of land was unused Stay on owned land you owe taxes to the landowner and dues Require to work 1 day a week on Landowners land Peasants could own land and pass it on to their kids Not enough income to sustain a family Extended family was rare 0 Main family structures O 0000 Couple gets married move away from home Dominant pattern nuclear households Leaving home later in life Marriage wasn t that common Why late marriage Not marry until support family First son wait until father dies Left village to do apprentice work 57 years Women wait to accumulate a dowry n Women actually did work 0 Marriage was not an individual affair Decision that involved a community Requires approval of lots of people Not a romantic affair More economic than anything else 1700 s things started to change VERY dramatically 0 Agricultural revolution Daily life or ordinary people Began to change in the 161700 s German areas Britain France Scandinavia o Abundant resources 0 Agriculture and Industry increase 0 Trade and Population increases Change in the nature of war 0 Total war professional armies in set battles Colonies o Reaping bene ts of imperialism Revolution in agricultural methods 0 Open elds communal structures 3 year rotation systems Old methods low production New crops and organization to increase production Potatoes turnips and feed corn more sustenance Increase productivity of elds by using all land a Better rotation systems Increased in production of food a Storage in the winter a Easier to feed livestock n More diversi ed diets n More fertilizer expand production a End of fallowing n Civilization rose out of subsistence levels Expansion of urban areas a Less people needed to work the land a Growth in population a Huge growth in food without huge increase in people working land 0 Holland O O Farmers owned their own land More private land per capita Bene tted by being close to imports from colonies Increase in productivity not just production Charles Townshend Protestant gentry Lots of land and overseas Enlightenment ideas in word Introduced turnips and potatoes Jethro Tull Invention to make holes in the ground to plant seeds I Reduction in seed loss a Better chance of growing Experimenting with breeding n Sturdier lines more meatmilk Huge increases in productivity in land Require degree of control Not possible in communal system a Close off land a Crops get all mixed together w communal land a quotEnclosure Movementquot revolutionized structure of village life destroyed tradition no more communal land 0 move onto land you re working 0 creation of a quotfarmer classquot from peasants mentality change communal l individual village household to capitalism breakdown of communal system 0 Creation of a quotmigrant rural underclass Source of labor for entrepreneurs Robbing stealing Rural forms of industrial manufacture cottage industry 0 Modern wage labor market 0 Most working class made up of guilds Skilled craftspeople controlling manufacturing 0 Manufacturers wanted to get around this Using rural labor Taking raw materials and putting them out Find people with skills they need to use materials Cottage industry Used to manufacture EVERYTHING By 1700 most manufacturing done in rural areas England 0 Signi cant Changes New opportunities for employment in rural areas a Taking care of the people left over from the Enclosure movement Helping young people do things on their own marrying sooner and starting families younger I Reduction in ages a Increase in number of marriages Does not wealth and nancial security a Communal support down people left on their own a Low wages a Life was still a struggle 0 First modern wage labor market system Transformation to modern economic landscape Not uniform changes a Different places and different times a Mostly in western and northern Europe
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