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Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Mackenzie Thompson

Week 1 Lecture Notes BIOL 112 101

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Science > BIOL 112 101 > Week 1 Lecture Notes
Mackenzie Thompson
Texas A&M
Biology 112
William Wardle

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About this Document

This is week 1 of the lecture notes
Biology 112
William Wardle
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie Thompson on Wednesday October 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 112 101 at Texas A&M University taught by William Wardle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Biology 112 in Science at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 10/14/15
Chapter 27 Prokaryotes 912015 Types of Cells Proka ryotic o Bacteria Internal Organelles Structure 0 Function 0 Organs o Ribosomes Function is protein synthesis 0 Respiratory membranes 0 Thylakoids Phospholipid membrane Photo pigments Chlorophylls Carotenoids o Etc 0 Photosynthetic External Organelles o Flagellum 0 Found only in aquatic species and symbiotic species 0 Function is locomotion Pilus o Primarily used for attachment 0 Cell Wall 0 Simple Peptidoglycan wall l polysaccharide and amino acid mesh provides light structure but doesn t interfere with incomingoutgoing materials 0 Complex Lipopolysaccharide membrane l outer wall Membrane Peptidoglycan membrane l inner wall thin phospholipid membrane 2nCI inner membrane 0 Gram Stain A stain that shows whether a cell is simple or complex 0 Simple turns purple positive reaction quotGram Positivequot 0 Bacteria are susceptible to antibiotic treatment 0 Complex dull pink quotGram NegaUvequot o Antibiotic resistant Mucopolysaccharide o Mucus 0 Thick amorphous layer Sheath or capsule 0 Provides insulation Attachmentdetachment Contains sunblock pigments 0 Blocks harmful UV rays that will cause mutations to genome Three shapes Coccus l spherical Bacillus l rodshaped o Spirillus l spiral helical always unicellular Three con gurations Unicellular species one cell Colonial species l many cells stuck together Filamentous l colonial but cannot be separated without damaging the cell because they share a cell membrane Reproduction o Binary ssion l splitting of cell freeliving species 0 Genome duplicates itself into 2 copies and each goes to an end of the cell o Furrowing l cells separate 0 Daughter cells go their own way unicellular or will stay together colonial Multiple ssion l parasitic bacteria 0 Instead of fragmenting into 2 copies it makes many copies 0 Furrowing becomes more complex 0 Unicellular species only Conjugation 932015 Nutritional Modes of Bacteria How they feed themselves 0 Heterotrophic nutirition l feed on other organic matter food Saprotrophic nutrition Bacteria called saprobes Dead or decaying matter Holotrophic nutrition 0 Feeds on other live organisms 0 Lion wolf bear etc Symbiotic nutrition 0 2 partners 0 Symbiont Smaller Initiates relationship Bene ts 0 Host Larger Passive Variously affected 3differenttypes o Commensalism Host isindifferent o Parasitism Hostsuffers o Mutualism Both bene t o Autotrophic nutrition synthesize their own organics Phototrophs Modern Photosynthesis H2 0 C02 gtC6 H120602 Ancient Photosynthesis Bacteria Classi cation 0 Domains 0 Bacteria All have thylakoids with photo pigments o Photosynthesis Chemotrophs Chemosynthesis Prokaryotic No histones normal phospholipids Gram positive Gram negative antibiotic resistant Cyanobacteria Oligotrophic 0 Clear water low nutrients Mesotrophic Eutrophic o Murky water high nutrients Eutrophication o Cyanobacteria are agents of eutrophication 0 Bloom of cyanobacteria is usually bluegreen o Archaea E Coli Vibrio Salmonella Nitrobacter and Nitrosomes 0 Good 0 Nitrogen xing Anabaena 0 Good 0 Fresh water 0 Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium 0 Good 0 Marine o Cyanobacteria Spirochaetes o All symbiotic 0 Good 0 Treponema and Borellia are bad Parasitic Syphilis and lyme disease Proka ryotic O O O Have histones and branched fatty acids in phospholipids Extreme thermophiles thermal sp ngs Extreme halophiles high salinity Methanogens anaerobic o Eukarya Eukaryotic Kingdoms include Protista Fungi Plantae and Animalia Bergey s Manual 0 Many tests to determine what classi cation an organism receives Bluegreen algae No membranebound nucleus Range from about 0210 microns o Eukaryotic 0 00000 Animals Plants Fungi Protists Membranebound nucleus Range from about 10100 microns


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